Maillotia was originally proposed as a distinct genus by Theobald (1907), with pilifera Theobald, 1907 (subjective synonym ofCulex hortensis Ficalbi, 1889) as its type and the only included species. It was implicitly synonymised with Culex by Edwards (1911) and placed in synonymy with Neoculex Dyar, 1905 by Edwards (1932), which was treated as a subgenus of Culex. Sirivanakarn (1971) removed Maillotia from synonymy to accommodate eight species divided between three groups, the Hortensis Group with three species, the monobasic Pulchrithorax Group for pulchrithorax Edwards, 1914, and the Seyrigi Group with four species. The subgenus currently includes two species group and an unplaced species. The Pulchrithorax Group was eliminated when Danilov removed pulchrithorax from Maillotia and proposed subgenus Afroculex to accommodate it.