Genus Bruceharrisonius Reinert, 2003

Type species: 

Bruceharrisonius greenii (Theobald, 1903), original combination: Howardina greenii.

Classification: 

Subfamily Culicinae, tribe Aedini. Bruceharrisonius includes nine species. Genus abbreviation – Br

Tanaka (2014, 2018), in a catalogue of the mosquitoes of Japan, listed previously unrecognised subgenera for Bruceharrisonius, a nominotypical subgenus and a species group (koreicoides-group) treated as a subgenus without a formal name. These ‘subgenera’ were not accompanied by a description or diagnosis and were listed without an explicit indication that they were new. In the absence of this, despite being included in a dichotomous key based on features of the male genitalia, they cannot be accepted as formally (validly) established subgeneric taxa (or even species groups).

Characteristics: 

Species of Bruceharrisonius are distinguished from species of other aedine genera that occur in their realm by one or more or a combination of the following principal features. ADULTS – Vertex of head with a median patch of pale falcate scales and several erect forked scales; eyes contiguous above antennal pedicels; maxillary palpus dark-scaled in both sexes, palpus of males slender, nearly straight and shorter than proboscis, palpomeres 4 and 5 fused, few short to moderately long setae on palpomeres 3–5; scutum with acrostichal and dorsocentral lines of pale scales contrasting with general covering of dark falcate scales, pale scaling also on scutal fossa, supraalar area and either side of prescutellar area; acrostichal and dorsocentral setae present; scutellum with narrow scales only; subspiracular and lower prealar areas with broad pale scales; lower mesepimeral seta absent (except in Br. okinawanus). FEMALE GENITALIA – Sternum VIII nearly covered with broad spatulate scales; tergum IX a single sclerite with more lightly pigmented median area and 3–7 setae distally on either side of midline; insula lip-like with 2 close-set setae on either side of midline; cercus moderately long and relatively narrow, sometimes with 1 or 2, rarely 4–6, scales. MALE GENITALIA – Tergum IX lobes short with 3–6 stout somewhat flattened setae; ventral surface of gonocoxite with row of setae extending from base to apex; gonostylus long and narrow, attached to apex of gonocoxite; gonostylar claw attached apically; claspette comprised of a columnar stem with a terminal large flattened filament and a narrow lateral arm arising from base of stem that bears 2 to several distal setae, one or more of which are flattened. LARVAE – Antenna long and slender; seta 1-A usually single; seta 4-C short and branched; seta 5-C long and branched; seta 6-C exceptionally long, single; insertions of setae 4,5,6-C form a small triangle with seta 4-C mesad of setae 5,6-C, anterior to seta 5-C and at more or less same level as seta 6-C, and seta 5-C posteromesad to seta 6-C; seta 7-C inserted posterior to base of antenna at level of setae 4–6-C; seta 6-I,II relatively short, seta 6-II shorter than seta 6-I,III; seta 7-I longer than seta 6-I; seta 1-VII very long, single; setae 2,4-VIII normally single; comb with many scales in patch. PUPAE – Seta 3-CT very long, much longer than seta 1-CT; seta 3-I long, normally double; paddle relatively narrow with midrib extending from base to apex; seta 1-Pa relatively long, single. See Aedini.

Phylogenetic relationships: 

The monophyly of Bruceharrisonius was recognised by Reinert (2003), who established the taxon as a subgenus within the traditional polyphyletic concept of Aedes. Species of Bruceharrisonius appear to be most closely related to species of genera Himalaius, Kenknightia, Vansomerenis and Zavortinkius, which comprised a clade parenthetically expressed as (Himalaius + Bruceharrisonius) + (Vansomerenis + (Zavortinkius + Kenknightia)) in the phylogenetic study of Reinert et al. (2009). The sister relationship of Bruceharrisonius and Himalaius was first observed in the phylogenetic analysis of morphological data by Reinert et al. (2006) and confirmed in the successively more comprehensive analyses of morphological data by Reinert et al. (2008), Reinert et al. (2009) and reanalysis of their data set by Wilkerson et al. (2015), and in the more recent maximum likelihood phylogeny of Soghidian et al. (2017) based on analysis of seven molecular markers.

Bionomics and disease relations: 

The immature stages of Bruceharrisonius species are usually found in water contained in tree holes and the stumps and internodes of bamboo. Some species have been found in rock pools, bromeliads, ferns and artificial containers. Adults may be active during day or night. Some species have been collected in light traps and some are known to bite humans during the day. 

Bruceharrisonius species are of no medical or economic importance to humans.

Distribution: 

Oriental Region, with extensions into the Australasian Region (New Guinea) and southeastern areas of the Palaearctic Region (China, Maritime and Ussurii Provinces of Russia, Korea and Japan). Records for countries of the Oriental Region include India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Philippine Islands, Sri Lanka, Taiwan and Thailand. 

Principal references: 

Reinert, 2003 (as subgenus of Ochlerotatus, taxonomy); Reinert et al., 2004, 2008, 2009 (morphology, phylogeny); Rattanarithikul et al., 2010 (Thailand, keys, bionomics); Wilkerson et al., 2015 (as subgenus of Aedes, phylogeny); Soghigian et al., 2017 (as subgenus of Aedes, phylogenetic relationships).

Species: 
alektorovi (Stackelberg, 1943)
aureostriatus (Doleschall, 1857)
christophersi (Edwards, 1922)
greenii (Theobald, 1903
hurlbuti (Lien, 1967)
kobayashii (Nakata, 1956)
okinawanus (Bohart, 1946)
taiwanus (Lien, 1968
Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith