Genus Eretmapodites Theobald, 1901

Type species: 

Eretmapodites quinquevittatus Theobald, 1901.

Classification: 

Subfamily Culicinae, tribe Aedini. Eretmapodites includes 48 species, three of which include the nominotypical and another subspecies. No subgenera are recognized. Genus abbreviation – Er.

Characteristics: 

Eretmapodites are yellowish-brown mosquitoes with a very broad patch of large, flat, silver scales separating the eyes above the antennae. They possess postspiracular setae like other Aedini in the Afrotropical Region, but the paratergite is both very broad and bare. Larvae have four or fewer pecten spines and a ventral brush (seta 4-X) composed of four pairs of setae. Additionally, the antennae are short and cylindrical and the lateral setae of abdominal segments I–VI arise from large conical projections in many species. See Aedini.

Phylogenetic relationships: 

Eretmapodites was recovered as the sister of Armigeres in the morphology-based phylogeny of Aedini generated by Reinert et al. (2009). It was recovered as the sister of Alanstonea, and this pair was sister to Armigeres, in the phylogeny of Wilkerson et al. (2015). Eretmapodites quinquevittatus, the only species of the genus included in the maximum likelihood phylogeny of Soghigian et al. (2017) based on seven molecular markers, was recovered as the sister of a clade comprised of five species of Armigeres.

Bionomics and disease relations: 

Eretmapodites are forest mosquitoes, but some species have become adapted to life in banana plantations. Larvae are found in water contained in fallen leaves, fruit husks, leaf axils, snail shells, man-made containers, bamboo and rarely tree holes. The larvae of two species occur in water held in the concave upper surface of polyporaceous fungi. Larvae of most species are facultative predators. Females apparently bite during the daytime. They will attack humans but probably prefer other hosts.

Some arboviruses, including Rift Valley fever virus, have been isolated from a few species. Eretmapodites chrysogaster has been shown to be capable of transmitting yellow fever virus.

Distribution: 

Species of Eretmapodites are confined to the Afrotropical Region.

Principal references: 

Edwards, 1941 (adults); Hopkins, 1952 (larvae); Service, 1990 (adults and larvae); Reinert et al., 2004, 2009 (morphology, phylogeny); Wilkerson et al., 2015 (phylogeny); Soghigian et al., 2017 (phylogenetic relationships).

Species: 
adami Ferrara & Eouzan, 1974
angolensis da Cunha Ramos & Ribeiro, 1992
argyrurus Edwards, 1936
brenguesi Rickenbach & Lombrici, 1975
brottesi Rickenbach, 1967
caillardi Rickenbach, Ferrara & Eouzan, 1968
chrysogaster Graham, 1909
corbeti Hamon, 1962
dracaenae Edwards, 1916
dundo da Cunha Ramos & Ribeiro, 1992
eouzani Rickenbach & Lombrici, 1974
ferrarai Rickenbach & Eouzan, 1970
forcipulatus Edwards, 1936
germaini Rickenbach & Eouzan, 1970
gilletti van Someren, 1949
grahami Edwards, 1911
grenieri Hamon & van Someren, 1961
haddowi van Someren, 1949
hamoni Grjebine, 1972
harperi van Someren, 1949
hightoni van Someren, 1947
inornatus Newstead, 1907 (in Newstead et al., 1907)
intermedius Edwards, 1936
jani Rickenbach & Lombrici, 1975
lacani Rickenbach & Eouzan, 1970
leucopous Graham, 1909
mahaffyi van Someren, 1949
marcelleae Adam & Hamon, 1959
mattinglyi Hamon & van Someren, 1961
melanopous Graham, 1909
mortiauxi da Cunha Ramos & Ribeiro, 1990
oedipodeios Graham, 1909
parvipluma Edwards, 1941
pauliani Grjbine, 1950
penicillatus Edwards, 1941
plioleucus Edwards, 1941
   subspecies brevis Edwards, 1941
   subspecies plioleucus Edwards, 1941
productus Edwards, 1941
quinquevittatus Theobald, 1901
ravissei Rickenbach & Eouzan, 1970
rickenbachi Ferrara & Eouzan, 1974
salauni Rickenbach, Ferrara & Eouzan, 1968
semisimplicipes Edwards, 1914
silvestris Ingram & de Meillon, 1927
   subspecies conchobius Edwards, 1941
   subspecies silvestris Ingram & de Meillon, 1927
subsimplicipes Edwards, 1914
tendeiroi da Cunha Ramos, Bibeiro & de Barros Machado, 1992
tonsus Edwards, 1914
vansomereni Hamon, 1962
wansoni Edwards, 1941
   subspecies douceti Adam & Hamon, 1959
   subspecies wansoni Edwards, 1941
Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith