Genus Hulecoeteomyia Theobald, 1904

Type species: 

Hulecoeteomyia trilineata Leicester, 1904 (in Theobald, 1904) [subjective synonym of Hulecoeteomyia chrysolineata (Theobald, 1907),  original combination: Howardina chrysolineata].

Classification: 

Subfamily Culicinae, tribe Aedini. Hulecoeteomyia includes 14 species, one with four subspecies. Genus abbreviation – Hl.

Characteristics: 

The adults and larvae of Hulecoeteomyia resemble the adults and larvae of Collessius and Tanakaius. The adults differ conspicuously in having basal pale bands on hindtarsomeres 1–3; the larvae differ in having spine-like comb scales with lateral fringes or strong denticles (occasionally rounded with an even fringe in Hl. harveyi and Hl. pallirostris) and the siphon usually with one or more simple pecten spines inserted adjacent or distal to the insertion of seta 1-S.

Characters that diagnose Hulecoeteomyia in the phylogenies of Aedini recovered in the studies of Reinert et al. (2006, 2009) are indicated by an asterisk (*). ADULTS – *Vertex with both broad and narrow scales, narrow scales medially, broad scales laterally; erect forked scales dorsally from compound eyes to occiput; maxillary palpus of females dark-scaled, usually some pale scales apically, maxillary palpus of males shorter than proboscis, more or less straight, *setae absent or few on palpomeres 3 and 4; proboscis dark-scaled, some species with areas of pale scaling; scutum with narrow pale scales arranged in narrow longitudinal lines as follows: long median line, long submedian line interrupted at scutal angle, line or diffused area over wing base, small patch just before wing base, patch along anterior margin of scutum from end of submedian line to level of postpronotal scales; scutellum with narrow scales, broader and appressed laterally on middle lobe; antepronotum with dense cover of broad pale scales, sometimes few narrow scales present; postpronotum variably scaled; proepisternum with patch of broad pale scales continuing onto anterior surface; thoracic pleura with patches of broad white scales on postspiracular area, lower prealar area, upper and lower mesokatepisternal areas and upper mesepimeral area, some species with paratergal and subspiracular scales (*paratergite and *subspiracular area without scales); wing dark-scaled, line of pale scales nearly always present at base of costa; tarsi with basal pale bands on some tarsomeres; fore- and midungues of females equal, each with 1 tooth, fore- and midungues of males unequal, larger unguis with a median tooth and a smaller basolateral tooth, smaller unguis with a postbasal tooth, hindungues equal and simple in both sexes; abdominal terga usually with basal pale markings (*tergum III without median basal pale area), with prominent basolateral pale spots, laterotergite of tergum I with scales.  FEMALE GENITALIA – Tergum VIII wider than long, with dense covering of broad scales on posterior 0.60–0.82, caudal margin broadly rounded; sternum VIII with caudal emargination separating broadly rounded setose lobes; tergum IX comprised of 2 lateral sclerites; postgenital lobe truncate with shallow emargination; lower vaginal sclerite absent; insula lip-like with setae in lateral patches; 1 large and 2 smaller spermathecal capsules. MALE GENITALIA – Ninth tergal lobes small but prominent, each bearing strong setae; sternum IX with setae and sometimes scales; gonocoxite densely scaled, mesal surface membranous, dorsal surface without apical lobe, usually without basal lobe, with 30–60 short setae along mesa1 margin, variable number of these more or less clustered in basal area, claspette with basal stem and apical sickle-shaped claspette filament; gonostylus simple with simple terminal claw; aedeagus short, simple; paraproct with a single apical tooth; cercal setae present. LARVAE – Antenna of even width with sparse spicules, seta 1-A with 1–5 branches (usually 2 or 3); *labiogula short, length ˂ width; seta 5-C branched; seta 4-C very small, with 2–7 branches; setae 4–6-C usually in more or less even transverse line; setae 5,6-C fan-like with stiff branches; *seta 14-C branched; abdominal seta 1 most prominent dorsal seta on segments III–VII; *seta 2-II branched, seta 2-VIII single; *seta 3-VII long to very long; seta 4-VIII single; *seta 5-II with 2 or more branches, not stellate; seta 13 most prominent ventral seta on segments III–VII, 13-III–V with 1–6 branches, 13-VI single, 13-VII with 1–4 branches; comb scales in patch; seta 1-S inserted at or just beyond mid-length of siphon, with 3–7 plumose branches; segment X with pilose integument, saddle incomplete, posterior margin with variously developed spicules; ventral brush (seta 4-X) comprised of 10–13 setae, normally all on grid. PUPAE – *Seta 1-CT very strongly developed, considerably longer than seta 3-CT; seta 10-CT inserted mesad of seta 11-CT; seta 11-C greatly elongate, single; seta 1-II usually well developed, with 2 or more branches; setae 2,3-I approximated; seta 2-VI inserted well mesad of seta 1-VI; setae 3-I–III and 5-IV–VII long, single; *seta 3-VII moderately long; seta 6-VII with 2–5 simple or barbed branches; seta 9-VII similar to seta 6-VII but usually larger with more branches; seta 1-Pa elongate, similar to seta 5-VII. See Aedini.

Phylogenetic relationships: 

Hulecoeteomyia appears to share affinities with several genera based on phylogenetic analyses of morphological data. In the study of Reinert et al. (2006), the genus was recovered as the sister to Tanakaius and Collessius in a clade comprised of Georgecraigius + (Hulecoeteomyia + (Tanakaius + Collessius)). In the more comprehensive study of Reinert et al. (2009), Hulecoeteomyia was recovered as the sister to Gilesius and Collessius in a clade comprised of Tanakaius + (Hulecoeteomyia + (Gilesius + Collessius)). Hulecoeteomyia, Collessius, Gilesius and Tanakaius comprised a polyphyletic clade in the phylogeny of Wilkerson et al. (2015). Contrary to what was stated by Soghigian et al. (2017), Hulecoeteomyia was not recovered as a monophyletic lineage in their maximum likelihood phylogeny based on seven molecular markers. Two species of Collessius formed a branch within a clade that included five species of Hulecoeteomyia, and that clade was sister to a clade comprised of species of Rhinoskusea + Collessius.

Bionomics and disease relations: 

The immature stages of Hulecoeteomyia commonly occur in ground pools, rock holes, crab holes, artificial containers, rock pools, hollow logs, tree stumps, tree holes, bamboo stumps, bamboo internodes, split bamboo, axils of Pandanus and Nipa and other plants, ginger inflorescence, pitcher plants, banana stumps, fallen leaves and coconut shells. The immature stages of some species are found occasionally in artificial containers. Adults have been collected biting humans. Little is known about the bionomics of the adults.

Species of Hulecoeteomyia are not known to be of medical importance, but all are capable of feeding on humans and are thus regarded as potential vectors of arboviruses.

Distribution: 

Oriental and eastern Palaearctic Regions. Hulecoeteomyia japonica is established in the United States and central Europe; Hl. koreica has been found in Belgium and Italy.

Principal references: 

Knight, 1968 (as Chrysolineatus Subgroup of Aedes subgenus Finlaya, taxonomy); Reinert, 2002 (as Chrysolineatus Assemblage of Ochlerotatus subgenus Finlaya, female genitalia); Reinert et al., 2006, 2008, 2009 (generic status, morphology, phylogeny); Reinert, 2008 (female genitalia); Rattanarithikul et al., 2010 (Thailand, keys, bionomics); Wilkerson et al., 2015 (as subgenus of Aedes, phylogeny); Soghigian et al., 2017 (as subgenus of Aedes, phylogenetic relationships).

Species: 
chrysolineata (Theobald, 1907)
fluviatilis Leicester, 1908
formosensis (Yamada, 1921)
harveyi (Barraud, 1923)
japonica (Theobald, 1901)
   subspecies amamiensis (Tanaka, Mizusawa & Saugstad, 1979)
   subspecies japonica (Theobald, 1901)
   subspecies shintienensis (Tsai & Lien, 1950)
   subspecies yaeyamensis (Tanaka, Mizusawa & Saugstad, 1979)
jugraensis Leicester, 1908
koreica (Edwards, 1917)
nigrorhynchus (Brug, 1931)
pallirostris (Edwards, 1922)
rizali (Banks, 1906)
sherki (Knight, 1948)
yunnanensis (Gaschen, 1934)
Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith