Subgenus Conopostegus Dyar, 1925

Type species: 

Haemagogus leucocelaenus (Dyar & Shannon, 1924), original combination: Aedes leucocelaenus.


Subfamily Culicinae, genus Haemagogus. Subgenus Conopostegus includes four formally named species (see below) and at least four unnamed species (Zavortink, 1972). Subgenus abbreviation – Con.


The following combinations of features distinguish species of subgenus Conopostegus from species of subgenus Haemagogus. Characters that diagnose Conopostegus in the phylogenetic analyses of Reinert et al. (2009) are indicated by an asterisk (*).

ADULTS – Scutum with deep brown scaling, scutum and scutellum without metallic-coloured scales; acrostichal area (*anterior acrostichal area), antealar area and prescutellar area with conspicuous lines or patches of silver scales; prescutellar setae present, well developed; postspiracular setae well developed; thoracic pleura with 3 conspicuous more or less vertical bands of silver scales; midfemur with patch of silvery-white scales on proximal 0.5–0.7 of anterior surface. FEMALE GENITALIA – Tergum IX V-shaped, setae absent; *sternum VIII divided by a narrow median longitudinal membranous area; cercus index 1.86–2.0; ventral postgenital lobe index is 1.52–1.69. MALE GENITALIA – Tergum VIII without specialised scales or setae on posterior margin; tergum IX with a pair of *widely separated posterior lobes; aedeagus with a pair of sternal plates, without tergal sclerotised process. LARVAE – Integument of thorax and abdomen without spicules; seta 12-I present, seta 12-II slightly to noticeably weaker than seta 10-II; comb comprised of 5–9 scales in a single row; ventral brush (seta 4-X) borne on a strongly sclerotised boss. PUPAE – Seta 5-CT strongly developed, long; *seta 7-CT ≥ 6.0 times as long as seta 6-CT; seta 1-Pa strongly developed, long, *0.40−0.60 length of paddle. See genus Haemagogus.

Phylogenetic relationships: 

Subgenera Conopostegus and Haemagogus were recovered as sister taxa in the phylogenetic studies of Reinert et al. (2006, 2008, 2009) based on morphological data, which does not support the suggestion of Arnell (1973) that species of Conopostegus are closer to the ancestral lineage that gave rise to genus Haemagogus because they appear to have retained several characters that are not present in species of the nominotypical subgenus. Zavortink (1972) noted that relationships between the formally named species of the subgenus are not obvious. The only species of the subgenus (Hg. leucocelaenus) included in the maximum likelihood phylogeny of Soghigian et al. (2017) based on several molecular markers was paired with Hg. mesodentatus of subgenus Haemagogus in a clade that included two other species of that subgenus. The relationship, however, is doubtful because Hg. leucocelaenus was represented by a single molecular marker as opposed to several markers for the three species of subgenus Haemagogus.

Bionomics and disease relations: 

The immature stages of species of subgenus Conopostegus are found in tree holes, bamboo internodes and artificial containers. Females have been collected in horse-baited traps and biting humans.

Haemagogus leucocelaenus is a vector of sylvatic yellow fever virus. Ilheus virus has been isolated from this species in Brazil.


Species of the subgenus are recorded from localities that extend from Honduras to Argentina and Brazil.

Principal references: 

Zavortink, 1972 (taxonomy); Arnell, 1973 (revision); Reinert, 2002 (female genitalia); Reinert et al., 2004, 2009 (morphology, phylogeny); Soghigian et al., 2017 (phylogenetic relationships).

Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith