Subgenus Haemagogus Williston, 1896

Type species: 

Haemagogus splendens Williston, 1896.


Subfamily Culicinae, genus Haemagogus. Subgenus Haemagogus includes 24 species. Subgenus abbreviation – Hag.


The following combinations of features distinguish species of subgenus Haemagogus from species of subgenus Conopostegus. Characters that diagnose the subgenus in the phylogenetic analyses of Reinert et al. (2009) are indicated by an asterisk (*).

ADULTS – *Antepronota approximated; scutum with dense covering of metallic green, blue, copper or bronze scales; *prescutellar area with scales medially and/or posteriorly; thoracic pleura with a single broad vertical band of silver scales; *postspiracular setae and *upper mesokatepisternal setae absent; *dorsal tertiary fringe scales absent on proximal 0.5 of wing; *postprocoxal scales present; *hindcoxa more or less at same leave as dorsal margin of mesomeron. FEMALE GENITALIA – Tergum IX Y-shaped, with or without setae; cercus index 2.07–2.93; ventral postgenital lobe index 1.78–2.40. MALE GENITALIA – Tergum VIII with long lanceolate scales or large spine-like setae on posterior margin, *sternum VIII with seta 2-S inserted lateral and about same level as seta 1-S; tergum IX with or without setae; gonocoxite with or without apical lobe, *with one or more stout setae on basomesal area of dorsal surface; gonostylus simple to highly modified, gonostylar claw apical or subapical, 0.18–0.65 length of gonostylus; claspette filament simple or highly modified; aedeagus with variously developed sclerotised apicotergal process. LARVAE – *Seta 1-A ≤ 3.0 times width of antenna at point of attachment; *seta 4-C ≤ 0.19 length of dorsal apotome; comb comprised of numerous scales in a patch; thoracic and abdominal integument spiculate; seta 12-I absent or seta 12-II stronger than seta 10-II; ventral brush (seta 4-X) borne on a weakly sclerotised boss. PUPAE – Seta 5-CT relatively weakly developed, *≤ 1.2 length of seta 4-CT; *seta 5-V shorter than length of tergum VI; seta 1-Pa relatively weakly developed. See genus Haemagogus.

Phylogenetic relationships: 

The two subgenera of Haemagogus were recovered as sister taxa in the phylogenetic studies of Reinert et al. (2006, 2008, 2009) based on morphological data, which does not support the contention of Arnell (1973) that species of subgenus Haemagogus are more highly derived than species of subgenus Conopostegus. As noted for subgenus Conopostegus, the inclusion of Hg. leucocelaenus of that subgenus in a clade with three species of subgenus Haemagogus in the maximum likelihood phylogeny of Soghigian et al. (2017) based on molecular markers is doubtful. Morphological differences strongly support the separate subgeneric status of Conopostegus and Haemagogus.

Bionomics and disease relations: 

Species of subgenus Haemagogus are inherently sylvatic. Females of most species readily attack humans at ground level, but some species tend to be principally arboreal, e.g. Hg. janthinomys, and are seldom encountered at ground level. The immature stages mainly inhabit tree holes and cut or broken bamboo internodes but are often found in other phytotelm habitats, e.g. bromeliads and fruit husks, and sometimes in ground pools and rock holes.

Several species, including Hg. janthinomys, Hg. equinus, Hg. lucifer, Hg. mesodentatus, Hg. spegazzinii and Hg. capricornii are vectors of sylvatic yellow fever virus. Ilheus virus has been isolated from Hg. janthinomys and Hg. spegazzinii in Panama.


Neotropical Region, from Paraguay, northern Argentina and Bolivia northward to Sonora, Mexico on the Pacific and southern Texas on the Atlantic of North America.

Principal references: 

Forattini, 1965 (as subgenera Haemagogus, Longipalpifer and Stegoconops, taxonomy biology); Arnell, 1973 (revision); Reinert, 2002 (female genitalia); Reinert et al., 2004, 2009 (morphology, phylogeny); Soghigian et al., 2017 (phylogenetic relationships).


acutisentis Arnell, 1973
aeritinctus Galindo & Trapido, 1967
albomaculatus Theobald, 1903
anastasionis Dyar, 1921
andinus Osorno-Mesa, 1944
argyromeris Dyar & Ludlow, 1921
baresi Cerqueira, 1960
boshelli Osorno-Mesa, 1944
capricornii Lutz, 1904 (in Bourroul, 1904)
celeste Dyar & Nuñez Tovar, 1927
chalcospilans Dyar, 1921
chrysochlorus Arnell, 1973
equinus Theobald, 1903
iridicolor Dyar, 1921
janthinomys Dyar, 1921
lucifer (Howard, Dyar & Knab, 1913)
mesodentatus Komp & Kumm, 1938
nebulosus Arnell, 1973
panarchys Dyar, 1921
regalis Dyar & Knab, 1906
soperi Levi-Castillo, 1955
spegazzinii Bréthes, 1912  
splendens Williston, 1896
tropicalis Cerqueira & Antunes, 1938

Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith