Subgenus Pseudoficalbia Theobald, 1912

Type species: 

Uranotaenia pandani (Theobald, 1912), original combination: Pseudoficalbia pandani.

Classification: 

Subfamily Culicinae, genus Uranotaenia. Subgenus Pseudoficalbia includes 150 species. Subgenus abbreviation – Pfc.

Characteristics: 

ADULTS – Without lines or patches of metallic scales; head with numerous erect scales covering most of vertex, frontal tuft absent; posterior mesanepisternum (prealar area) not separated from mesokatepisternum by a suture (mesanapleural suture); wing without pale-scaled areas, alula with or without few broad dorso-marginal scales; anterior unguis of legs of females not noticeably broader than posterior unguis. MALE GENITALIA – Gonocoxite with well-developed basal mesa1 lobe, usually produced dorso-apically into a very distinct finger-like lobe; gonostylus moderately long, usually slender and tapered to narrow apex, sometimes rather stout and distended on dorsal preapical margin; lateral sclerites of aedeagus normally distinctly connected dorsally and ventrally. LARVAE – Seta 5-C (normally) and seta 6-C slender, usually single and simple or weakly branched, usually inserted far forward on anterior third of head, rarely inserted near mid-length; grid of ventral brush (seta 4-X) normally not joined mid-ventrally to saddle. PUPAE – Trumpets normally set far apart, nearer to mesothoracic wing than to median keel, usually with indistinct tracheoid area at base anteriorly. See genus Uranotaenia.

Phylogenetic relationships: 

Phylogenetic relationships within the subgenus have not been investigated. However, da Cunha Ramos (1993) employed UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean) methodology to construct phenetic trees for Afrotropical species of subgenera Pseudoficalbia and Uranotaenia.

Bionomics and disease relations: 

The immature stages of species of Pseudoficalbia are generally found in phytotelm habitats, but some species have been found in ground pools, swamps and artificial containers. Very little is known about the feeding habits of females.

Species of subgenus Pseudoficalbia are not of medical or economic importance.

Distribution: 

Species of Pseudoficalbia occur principally in the tropical and subtropical regions of the Old World, with the exception of some islands in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, Ur. anhydor in the southwestern United State and Mexico, several species with a northward extension from the Oriental Region into the Palaearctic Region, and Ur. unguiculata in the Mediterranean Subregion and adjacent areas of the European and Siberia Subregions of the Palaearctic.

Principal references: 

Peyton, 1977 (Southeast Asia, subgenus, sections and species descriptions, keys, distributions, bionomics); Tanaka et al., 1979 (Japan, species descriptions, keys, distributions); Lee et al., 1989 (Australasian Region, subgenus distinction, species keys, distributions, bionomics); Service, 1990 (Afrotropical Region, morphology, keys, bionomics, distributions); da Cunha Ramos, 1993 (Afrotropical Region, subgenus, sections and species descriptions and keys, distributions, bionomics); da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004 (Madagascar, subgenus, sections and species descriptions and keys, distributions, bionomics); Rattanarithikul et al., 2006 (Thailand, keys, bionomics).

Species: 

abdita Peyton, 1977
abstrusa Peyton, 1977
albimanus da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
albinotata da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
albipes Peyton, 1977
ambodimanga da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
andreae Doucet, 1962
anhydor Dyar, 1907
     subspecies anhydor Dyar, 1907
     subspecies syntheta Dyar & Shannon, 1924
annulata Theobald, 1901
antalahaensis da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
apicosquamata da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
apicotaeniata Theobald, 1909
approximata Peyton, 1977
ascidiicola de Meijere, 1910
atra Theobald, 1905
bambusicola da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
belkini Grjebine, 1979
bicincta da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
bicolor Leicester, 1908
bifasciata da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
bimaculata Leicester, 1908
bosseri Grjebine, 1979
boussesi da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
breviseta da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
browni Mattingly, 1955 (in Mattingly & Brown, 1955)
brumpti Doucet, 1951
brunhesi Grjebine, 1979
cachani (Doucet, 1950)
capelai da Cunha Ramos, 1993
carcinicola da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
cavernicola Mattingly, 1954
colocasiae Edwards, 1928
combesi (Doucet, 1950)
comorensis da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
confusa Peyton, 1977
contrastata da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
cornuta da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
damasei Grjebine, 1979
dandakaranyensis Natarajan, Rajavel & Jambulingam, 2017
demeilloni Peyton & Rattanarithikul, 1970
devemyi Hamon, 1955
diagonalis Brug, 1934
dibrugarhensis Bhattacharyya, Prakash, Mohapatra & Mahanta, 2004
donai da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
douceti Grjebine, 1953
enigmatica Peyton, 1977
fulgens da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
fusca Theobald, 1907
garnhami van Someren, 1948
gigantea Brug, 1931
gouldi Peyton & Klein, 1970
grenieri Doucet, 1951
grjebinei da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
haddowi da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
harrisoni Peyton, 1977
henrardi Edwards, 1935
henriquei da Cunha Ramos, 1993
hervyi da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
hirsuta Boussès & Brunhes, 2013
hirsutifemora Peters, 1964
hongayi Galliard & Ngu, 1947
husaini Qutubuddin, 1947
jacksoni Edwards, 1935
jinhongensis Dong, Dong & Zhou, 2003
koli Peyton & Klein, 1970
kraussi Grjebine, 1953
laffosseae da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
lavieri Doucet, 1950
legoffi da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
leiboensis Chu, 1981
longitubus da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
lousthei Boussès & Brunhes, 2013
lucyae van Someren, 1954
lui Lien, 1968
lunda da Cunha Ramos, 1993
luteola Edwards, 1934 (in Barraud, 1934)
lutescens Leicester, 1908
maculipleura Leicester, 1908
madagascarensis da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
maikalensis Natarajan, Rajavel & Jambulingam, 2017
manakaraensis da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
mashonaensis Theobald, 1901
mattinglyi Qutubuddin, 1951
maxima Leicester, 1908
mengi Chen, Wang & Zhao, 1989
micromelas Edwards, 1934
modesta Leicester, 1908
montana Ingram & de Meillon, 1927
moufiedi Peyton, 1977
moultoni Edwards, 1914
musarum Edwards, 1936
nepenthes (Theobald, 1912)
nigricephala da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
nigripes (Theobald, 1905)
nigripleura da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
nigromaculata Edwards, 1941
nivipleura Leicester, 1908
nivipous Theobald, 1912
nocticola Peyton, 1977
novobscura Barraud, 1934
     subspecies novobscura Barraud, 1934
     subspecies ryukyuana Tanaka, Mizusawa & Saugstad, 1979
obscura Edwards, 1915
ohamai Tanaka, Mizusawa & Saugstad, 1975
ornata Theobald, 1909
ototomo da Cunha Ramos, 1993
painei Edwards, 1935
pallidipleura da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
pandani (Theobald, 1912)
patriciae Peyton, 1977
pauliani Doucet, 1949b
pilosa da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
principenis da Cunha Ramos, 1993
propinqua Peyton, 1977
pseudoalbimanus da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
pseudohenrardi Peters, 1955
pseudomaculipleura Peyton & Rattanarithikul, 1970
pseudoshillitonis da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
pseudostricklandi Natarajan, Rajavel & Jambulingam, 2018
pylei Baisas, 1946
quadrimaculata Edwards, 1929 (in Paine & Edwards, 1929)
quasimodesta Peyton, 1977
qui Dong, Dong & Zhou, 2003
quinquemaculata Bonne-Wepster, 1934
ramosa da Cunha Ramos, 1993
ravenalaphila Boussès & Brunhes, 2013
ravenalicola da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
recondita Edwards, 1922
reinerti Peyton, 1977
rickenbachi da Cunha Ramos, 1993
rossi Delfinado, 1966
satpuraensis Natarajan, Rajavel & Jambulingam, 2017
scutostriata da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
shillitonis Edwards, 1932b
signata da Cunha Ramos, 1993
spiculosa Peyton & Rattanarithikul, 1970
spinitubus da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
spinosa da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
spiraculata da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
srilankensis Peyton, 1974
stricklandi Barraud, 1926
sumethi Peyton & Rattanarithikul, 1970
tanakai Miyagi & Tome, 2013
tanzaniae da Cunha Ramos, 1993
tricolor da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
tridentata da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
tsaratananae Doucet, 1950
ugandae da Cunha Ramos, 1993
unguiculata Edwards, 1913
     subspecies pefflyi Stone, 1961
     subspecies unguiculata Edwards, 1913
xanthomelaena Edwards, 1925
yaeyamana Tanaka, Mizusawa & Saugstad, 1975
yovani van Someren, 1951

Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith