Subgenus Uranotaenia Lynch Arribálzaga, 1891

Type species: 

Uranotaenia pulcherrima Lynch Arribálzaga, 1891.

Classification: 

Subfamily Culicinae, genus Uranotaenia. Subgenus Uranotaenia includes 121 species. Subgenus abbreviation – Ura.

Characteristics: 

ADULTS – Some species with lines or patches of silver, gold or blue metallic scales; head usually without erect scales, when present usually few restricted to occiput, rarely few on vertex, frontal tuft present; posterior mesanepisternum (prealar area) separated from mesokatepisternum by a suture (mesanapleural suture); wing of some species with pale-scaled areas, alula without scales; females of some species with anterior unguis of all legs much broader than posterior unguis. MALE GENITALIA – Gonocoxite with weakly developed basal mesa1 lobe, occasionally absent; gonostylus very short and stout, usually with dorsal preapical margin distended; lateral sclerites of aedeagus distinctly connected only dorsally. LARVAE – Seta 5-C and seta 6-C very stout and normally spinulate, always inserted far back on head, seta 6 inserted at level or posterior to base of antenna and seta 5 inserted near mid-length of head; grid of segment X usually distinctly joined mid-ventrally to saddle. PUPAE – Trumpets normally set close together, nearer to median keel than to mesothoracic wing, usually with distinct tracheoid area on basal 0.25 or more. See genus Uranotaenia.

Phylogenetic relationships: 

Phylogenetic relationships within the subgenus have not been investigated. However, da Cunha Ramos (1993) employed UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean) methodology to construct phenetic trees for Afrotropical species of subgenera Uranotaenia and Pseudoficalbia.

Bionomics and disease relations: 

Species of subgenus Uranotaenia are found mainly in ground-water habitats, including springs, stream margins, swamps, temporary pools with vegetation, rock holes and crab holes. Some species have been found in tree holes, plant axils and artificial containers. Females of some species are known to feed on frogs, birds and mammals, but are normally not attracted to humans. Females of Ur. sapphirina specialise in feeding on the blood of earthworms and leeches (Reeves et al., 2018).

Species of the subgenus are not of medical or economic importance.

Distribution: 

Species of subgenus Uranotaenia occur principally in tropical areas and to some extent subtropical areas, of the Afrotropical, Australasian, Neotropical and Oriental Regions. Uranotaenia sapphirina is primarily a Nearctic species, extending northward from the Dominican Republic, Mexico and Puerto Rico through the United States into Canada.

Principal references: 

Lee et al., 1989 (Australasian Region, subgenus distinction, species keys, distributions, bionomics); Service, 1990 (Afrotropical Region, morphology, keys, bionomics, distributions); da Cunha Ramos, 1993 (Afrotropical Region, subgenus, sections and species descriptions and keys, distributions, bionomics); da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004 (Madagascar, subgenus, sections and species descriptions and keys, distributions, bionomics); Rattanarithikul et al., 2006 (Thailand, keys, bionomics).

Species: 

aequatorianna Leví-Castillo, 1953
alba Theobald, 1901
albescens Taylor, 1914
alboabdominalis Theobald, 1910
alboannulata (Theobald, 1905)
albocephala da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
albosternopleura Peters, 1963
amiensis Peters, 1963
andavakae Doucet, 1950
angolensis da Cunha Ramos, 1985
annandalei Barraud, 1926
anopheloides Brunhes & Razafindrasolo, 1975
antennalis Taylor, 1919
apicalis Theobald, 1903
argentipleura da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
arguellesi Baisas, 1935
argyrotarsis Leicester, 1908
balfouri Theobald, 1904
barnesi Belkin, 1953
benoiti Wolfs, 1964 (in Benoit, 1964)
bertii Cova García & Rausseo, 1964
bidentata da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
bilineata Theobald, 1909
bimaculiala Leicester, 1908
bricenoi Cova García, Pulido, Escalante de Ugueto, Amarista & Mora, 1987
briseis , Dyar 1925
caeruleocephala Theobald, 1901
caliginosa Philip, 1931
calosomata Dyar & Knab, 1907
campestris Leicester, 1908
chorleyi Edwards, 1936
christophersi Barraud, 1926
civinskii Belkin, 1953
clara Dyar & Shannon, 1925
coatzacoalcos Dyar & Knab, 1906
connali Edwards, 1912
cooki Root, 1937
davisi Lane, 1943
diraphati Peyton & Klein, 1970
ditaenionota Prado, 1931
dumonti Doucet, 1949
edwardsi Barraud, 1926
falcipes Banks, 1906
fimbriata King & Hoogstraal, 1947
fraseri Edwards, 1912
gabaldoni Cova García, Pulido F., Escalante de Ugueto & Mora R., 1987
geniculata da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
geometrica Theobald, 1901
gerdae Slooff, 1963
grassei da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
hamoni Grjebine, 1953
hebes Barraud, 1931
hebrardi da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
heiseri Baisas, 1935
hopkinsi Edwards, 1932
hystera Dyar & Knab, 1913
incognita Galindo, Blanton & Peyton, 1954
iriartei Cova García, Pulido F., Escalante de Ugueto & Mora R., 1987
joucouri da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
lanei Martinez & Prosen, 1953
lateralis Ludlow, 1905
lebiedi da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
leucoptera (Theobald, 1907)
longirostris Leicester, 1908
lowii Theobald, 1901
ludlowae Dyar & Shannon, 1925
macfarlanei Edwards, 1914
machadoi da Cunha Ramos, 1986
madagascarica da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
mathesoni Lane, 1943
mayeri Edwards, 1912
mayottensis Brunhes, 1977
mendiolai Baisas, 1935
metatarsata Edwards, 1914
micans Leicester, 1908
moramangae da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
moresbyensis Peters, 1963
nataliae Lynch Arribálzaga, 1891
neireti Edwards, 1920
neotibialis King & Hoogstraal, 1947
nivea Leicester, 1908
nivipes (Theobald, 1905)
novaguinensis Peters, 1963
orientalis Barraud, 1926
orthodoxa Dyar, 1921
oteizai Perez Vigueras, 1956
pallidocephala Theobald, 1908
pallidoventer Theobald, 1903
palmeirimi de Meillon & Rebêlo, 1941
     subspecies dundo da Cunha Ramos, 1993
     subspecies palmeirimi de Meillon & Rebêlo, 1941
paludosa Galindo, Blanton & Peyton, 1954
paralateralis Peters, 1964
paranovaguinensis Peters, 1963
philonuxia Philip, 1931
pifanoi Cova Garcia, Pulido F. & Escalante de Ugueto, 1981
prajimi Peyton & Rattanarithikul, 1970
pulcherrima Lynch Arribálzaga, 1891
pygmaea Theobald, 1901
rachoui Xavier, da Silva Mattos & da Silva, 1970
rampae Peyton & Klein, 1970
reyi Baisas, 1935
riverai Duret, 1970
roberti da Cunha Ramos & Brunhes, 2004
rutherfordi Edwards, 1922
sapphirina (Osten Sacken, 1868)
setosa King & Hoogstraal, 1947
sexaueri Belkin, 1953
socialis Theobald, 1901
solomonis Belkin, 1953
sombooni Peyton & Klein, 1970
subnormalis Martini, 1920
subtibioclada King & Hoogstraal, 1947
telmatophila Galindo, Blanton & Peyton, 1954
testacea Theobald, 1905
tibialis Taylor, 1919
tibioclada King & Hoogstraal, 1947
trapidoi Galindo, Blanton & Peyton, 1954
trilineata Leicester, 1908
typhlosomata Dyar & Knab, 1907
unimaculiala Leicester, 1908
wysockii Belkin, 1953
yunnanensis Dong, Dong & Wu, 2004

Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith