Subgenus Coquillettidia Dyar, 1905

Type species: 

Coquillettidia perturbans (Walker, 1856); original combination: Culex perturbans.

Classification: 

Subfamily Culicinae, genus Coquillettidia. Subgenus Coquillettidia includes 44 species. Subgenus abbreviation – Coq.

Characteristics: 

ADULTS – Compound eyes narrowly separated above antennal pedicels, interocular space with or without scales; maxillary palpus of females with minute apical palpomere, without scales, maxillary palpus of males as long or longer than proboscis, apex of palpomere 3 and all of palpomere 4 somewhat broadened, palpomere 5 well developed, setose, not upturned; proboscis with or without pale scales, longer than forefemur; scutal scales of 1 or 2 colours; acrostichal setae in a more or less complete line; scutellar scales often sparse; antepronotum without scales; postspiracular setae absent; mesokatepisternum with scales largely restricted to lower area or if numerous on upper part not continuous with prealar sales; dorsal scales of wing usually all narrow and unicolorous, rarely with mixture of broader dark and pale scales; legs with or without conspicuous pale markings, tarsi with or without pale bands; scales of abdominal tergum I confined to small central area. FEMALE GENITALIA – Abdominal segment VIII largely exposed, sternum without lateral flap-like lobe; cercus rounded, without upturned apical process; postgenital lobe usually more or less rounded distally, at most slightly emarginate apically; 3 spermathecal capsules. MALE GENITALIA – Ninth tergal lobes more or less distinct, with few to many setae; gonocoxite more or less cylindrical or conical, mesal membrane present or absent; gonostylus with apical or subapical spiniform gonostylar claw; claspette short, poorly developed, with 1 or more elongate apical spiniform setae; aedeagus variable, with or without spicules. LARVAE – Hypostomal suture usually interrupted in anterior 0.5; antenna with distal part usually as long as proximal part, flexible, annulated, jointed and movable along peculiar diagonal ventral connection to basal part; setae 2,3-A much shorter than distal part; seta 4-III,IV inserted laterad of seta 3; comb usually with at least 5 spine-like scales, basolateral denticles and spicules sometimes present; setae 3,4,5-VIII always in compact group; seta 1-S usually on a distal lobe of siphon; ventral brush with 4 or 5 pairs of setae on grid, some precratal setae sometimes also present on ventral midline of saddle; accessory setae (x,y,z-X) sometimes present on saddle. PUPAE – Trumpet with apex produced into a narrow poorly sclerotised process surrounded by a “cellular” lobe on 2 sides (usually broken off in pupae detached from plant parts); all cephalothoracic setae unbranched; seta 9-VIII inserted on dorsal surface of segment, removed from caudolateral angle; all setae very small and single; seta 3-III–VI absent; seta 11-II–VII usually absent, an alveolus occasionally present; paddle long and narrow. See genus Coquillettidia.

Phylogenetic relationships: 

Not investigated. Belkin (1962) noted that Coquillettidia (as a subgenus of Mansonia) appears to be closely related to subgenus Rhynchotaenia.

Bionomics and disease relations: 

The bionomics of most species of subgenus Coquillettidia is poorly known. The immature stages are chiefly found among the roots of various plants, particularly grasses, in shallow water of marshes, swamps, ponds, lakes and seepage. Adults may be active during the day or night. Females of several species readily attack humans.

Some species of subgenus Coquillettidia are notorious pests of humans and domestic animals in Africa, Europe and North America. Coquillettidia perturbans is a vector of eastern equine encephalitis virus and Tensaw virus in North America (Turell et al. 2005; White & Faust, 2014, respectively); Cq. crassipes is a secondary vector of Brugia malayi (Wharton, 1962). Coquillettidia aurites, Cq. metallica and Cq. pseudoconopas appear to be important vectors of bird malaria in Africa (Njabo et al., 2009). White & Faust (2014) list Cq. fuscopennata as a natural vector of Chikungunya and Sindbis viruses, Cq. metallica as a natural vector of West Nile virus and Cq. fuscopennata, Cq. microannulata and Cq. versicolor as natural vectors of Rift Valley fever virus in Africa. They also list Cq. richiardii as a natural vector of Calovo virus in Europe.

Distribution: 

Except for Cq. perturbans, which occurs in North America, species of subgenus Coquillettidia are confined to the Old World. Most species are found in the Afrotropical Region, but some occur in the Oriental and Australasian Regions. Two species occur in the Palaearctic Region.

Principal references: 

Belkin, 1962 (as subgenus of Mansonia, South Pacific, taxonomy,); Delfinado, 1966 (Philippines, keys, taxonomy, bionomics, distributions); Belkin, 1968 (New Zealand, Cq. iracunda, taxonomy, bionomics, distribution); Tanaka et al., 1979 (as subgenus of Mansonia, Japan, Cq. crassipes and Cq. ochracea); Lee et al., 1988 (Australasian Region, keys, taxonomy, literature, bionomics, distributions); Service, 1990 (Afrotropical Region, keys, taxonomy, bionomics, distributions); Rattanarithikul et al., 2006 (Thailand, keys, bionomics).

Species: 

annettii (Theobald, 1901)
aurata (Dobrotworsky, 1962)
aurea (Edwards, 1915)
aureosquammata (Ludlow, 1909)
aurites (Theobald, 1901)
buxtoni (Edwards, 1923)
chrysosoma (Edwards, 1915)
crassipes (van der Wulp, 1881)
cristata (Theobald, 1904)
fijiensis (Belkin, 1962)
flavocincta (Edwards, 1936)
fraseri (Theobald, 1911)
fuscopennata (Theobald, 1903)
fuscopteron (Theobald, 1911)
giblini (Taylor, 1914)
grandidieri (Blanchard, 1905)
hodgkini (Wharton, 1962)
iracunda (Walker, 1848)
karandalaensis (Wolfs, 1951)
linealis (Skuse, 1889)
lutea (Belkin, 1962)
maculipennis (Theobald, 1911)
memorans (Bonne-Wepster, 1930)
metallica (Theobald, 1901)
microannulata (Theobald, 1911)
nigritarsis (Wolfs, 1958)
nigrithorax (Theobald, 1910)
nigrochracea (Bonne-Wepster, 1930)
nigrosignata (Edwards, 1917)
novochracea (Barraud, 1927)
ochracea (Theobald, 1903)
perturbans (Walker, 1856)
pseudoconopas (Theobald, 1910)
richiardii (Ficalbi, 1889)
rochei (Doucet, 1951)
samoaensis Stone, 1966
saotomensis Lien, Lin, Lin, & Tseng, 2008
schoutedeni (Wolfs, 1948)
vanoyei (Wolfs, 1948)
variegata (Dobrotworsky, 1962)
versicolor (Edwards, 1913)
voltaensis (Danilov, 1982)
wahlbergi (Edwards, 1936)
xanthogaster (Edwards, 1924)

Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith