Subgenus Paraedes Edwards, 1934

Type species: 

Aedes barraudi (Edwards, 1934) (in Barraud, 1934), original combination: Paraedes barraudi.

Classification: 

Subfamily Culicinae, tribe Aedini, genus Aedes. Subgenus Paraedes includes eight species. Subgenus abbreviation – Par.

Characteristics: 

Species of subgenus Paraedes are characterized and distinguished from species of other generic-level taxa of Aedini by the following combinations of characters. Characters that diagnose Paraedes in the phylogenetic analyses of Reinert et al. (2009) based on features observed in Ae. barraudi and Ae. ostentatio are indicated by an asterisk (*).

ADULTS – Maxillary palpus of males less than 0.12 length of proboscis; scutum with numerous anterior and posterior dorsocentral setae; *anterior acrostichal area with stripe of pale scales, acrostichal setae usually absent; prescutellar area without scales; paratergite usually bare (with scales in males of Ae. thailandensis and females of Ae. pagei); lower mesepimeral seta absent. FEMALE GENITALIA – Tergum VIII and sternum VIII usually without scales; only 1 large spermathecal capsule present (3 in Ae. menoni); upper vaginal sclerite well developed, narrow; insula tongue-like, distal 0.5 with 2–7 tuberculi, each with a minute spicule; cercus usually without scales, index 2.15–3.48. MALE GENITALIA – *Claspette (basal mesal lobe of Reinert, 1981) comprised of 2 elongate lobes, one long, narrow, curved, with 3 stout apical setae, other broader with 3–5 flattened apical setae or with long narrow spines; gonostylus with 2 or 3 arms (*an elongate lobe on lateral surface present), 1 or 2 arms with spicules forming file-like ridges, 1 arm with fine setae; gonostylar claw absent; aedeagus comprised of 2 approximated lateral plates, each with 1–3 lateral teeth. LARVAE – Antennal scape spiculate, seta 1-A stout, multi-branched; *seta 4-C and seta 6-C inserted at same level, both more or less equal distance from seta 5-C, seta 6-C inserted laterad and slightly cephalad of seta 5-C; seta 7-C inserted caudomesad of base of antenna; seta 6-I–V long, stout, barbed; seta 4-VIII single (rarely 2- or 3-branched in Ae. chrysoscuta), noticeably longer than seta 3-VIII; comb with 7–18 spine-like scales in a single curved row; pecten with distal 1–3 spines more widely spaced than proximal spines; *seta 1-S ≤ 0.40 width of siphon; saddle incomplete, acus absent; seta 2-X moderately long, multi-branched; seta 3-X very long, single; *ventral brush (seta 4-X) on grid with transverse bars. PUPAE – *Seta 5-CT > 1.3 length of seta 4-CT; seta 9-CT longer than seta 8-CT; seta 1-II with 5–22 branches; seta 2-II long, stout, only slightly shorter than seta 3-II, *as long or longer than seta 1-II; *seta 3-I nearly as long or longer than seta 6-I, *seta 3-II longer than seta 6-II; seta 9-VIII long, single (sometimes double in Ae. bonneae); paddle without fringe of hair-like spicules; seta 1-Pa long, single. See Aedes.

Phylogenetic relationships: 

Subgenus Paraedes appears to be most closely related to subgenus Aedes and genus Verrallina. In the phylogenetic study of Reinert et al. (2004), Paraedes was recovered as the sister of a clade comprised of Aedes + Verrallina; it was recovered as the sister of Verrallina in a clade comprised of Aedes + (Paraedes + Verrallina))) in the studies  of Reinert et al. (2009) and Wilkerson et al. (2015). In agreement with their results, two species of Paraedes were recovered in a sister relationship to five species of Aedes in the maximum likelihood phylogeny of Soghigian et al. (2017) based on seven molecular markers. The Aedes + Paraedes clade, however, was sister to a clade consisting of Verrallina + Edwardsaedes.

Bionomics and disease relations: 

The immature stages of species of subgenus Paraedes are usually found in freshwater in crab holes, but they have also been found in holes near streams, elephant footprints, fallen Nipa palm fronds, ground pools and wheel tracks. Habitats are located in partially to heavily shaded forest, plantations, bamboo grooves and scrub areas in valleys, hills and mountainous terrain. Adults of most species are known to feed on humans, sometimes viciously biting during daytime.

Species of subgenus Paraedes are not of medical and economic importance to humans.

Distribution: 

Species of subgenus Paraedes are distributed in the Oriental Region from India and Sri Lanka eastward to the Philippines.

Principal references: 

Mattingly, 1958 (taxonomy); Reinert, 1981 (revision); Reinert, 2000 (female genitalia); Reinert et al., 2004, 2009 (as genus, morphology, phylogeny); Rattanarithikul et al., 2010 (as genus, Thailand, keys, bionomics); Wilkerson et al., 2015 (phylogeny, classification); Soghigian et al., 2017 (phylogenetic relationships).

Species: 
barraudi (Edwards, 1934) (in Barraud, 1934)
chrysoscuta (Theobald, 1910)
collessi Mattingly, 1958
ostentatio (Leicester, 1908)
pagei (Ludlow, 1911)
thailandensis Reinert, 1976
Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith