Subgenus Pseudarmigeres Stone & Knight, 1956

Type species: 

Aedes argenteoventralis subspecies dunni Evans, 1928.

Classification: 

Subfamily Culicinae, tribe Aedini, genus Aedes. Subgenus Pseudarmigeres includes five species, two each represented by two subspecies. Subgenus abbreviation – Psa.

Characteristics: 

Characters that diagnose subgenus Pseudarmigeres (as genus) in the phylogeny of Aedini recovered in the study of Reinert et al. (2009) are indicated by an asterisk (*). ADULTS – Ornate brown and white species; vertex with broad decumbent scales, erect scales absent; maxillary palpus and proboscis dark-scaled, proboscis longer than forefemur; maxillary palpus of males slender, upturned, practically devoid of setae, *0.5–0.8 length of proboscis; acrostichal setae absent, dorsocentral setae and prescutellar setae few or absent; scutum with pale scales on anterior promontory, posterior dorsocentral area, supraalar area and prescutellar area; scutellum, antepronotum, postpronotum and paratergite with broad flat scales; proepisternum and usually pleura densely scaly, *hypostigmal scales, *upper prealar scales and *lower prealar scales present; lower mesepimeral setae present or (usually?) absent; wing dark-scaled, *alula with broad scales on dorsal surface; *postprocoxal membrane largely or entirely covered with scales, *hindtibia with apical pale spot]/no-lexicon], tarsi dark-scaled, anterior fore- and midungues toothed; laterotergite of [no-lexicon]abdominal segment I with scales, terga II–V with large lateral pale patches, terga V–VII with complete basal pale bands; sterna II–V pale-scaled, sterna VI and VII dark-scaled with basal pale markings. FEMALE GENITALIA – Segment VIII mostly or completely retracted into segment VII, sternum VIII scaled, posterior margin more or less straight; tergum IX heart-shaped; cercus rather broad; postgenital lobe emarginate. MALE GENITLIA – Gonocoxite densely setose, patch of short flat setae on distal 0.5 of ventromesal margin, basal dorsomesal lobe indistinct, with dense setae, mesal membrane nearly complete to apex of gonocoxite, gonostylus attached at apex, *noticeably narrower proximally, *gonostylar claw inserted near mid-length, *with close-set row of stout setae (similar to claw) between claw and apex; claspette closely appressed to mesal membrane of gonocoxite, with apical tuft of setae, one seta much longer. LARVAE – Antenna smooth; *seta 1-C spiniform; seta 4-C large, as long as seta 7-C; comb scales relatively few in number; elements of ventral brush (seta 4-X) unpaired, *precratal setae present. PUPAE – Setae 10–12-CT single, 10,11-CT about same length, longer than seta 12-CT; most abdominal setae single; seta 3-I longer than setae 6,7-I; *seta 2-VI inserted lateral to seta 1-VI; *seta 5-V shorter than median length of tergum; seta 9-VII,VIII not strongly developed; paddles without fringe or obvious denticles on margin, midrib rather stout, without external buttress. See Aedes.

Phylogenetic relationships: 

Edwards (1941) suggested a close relationship between Pseudarmigeres (as subgenus Dunnius) and the Oriental genus Armigeres based on striking morphological similarities of the adults, notably the reduction of dorsocentral setae, densely scaled proepisternum and postprocoxal membrane, general ornamentation and the presence of many setae on the male gonostylus. Based on the phylogenetic studies of Reinert et al. (2004, 2009), Pseudarmigeres is more closely related to the Oriental subgenus Alanstonea and genus Heizmannia. Pseudarmigeres and genus Heizmannia were recovered as sister taxa in their 2004 study and in a clade comprising subgenus Petermattinglyius + (subgenus Alanstonea + subgenus Pseudarmigeres) + genus Heizmannia)) in their more comprehensive 2009 study. Pseudarmigeres was recovered as the sister of Heizmannia, and this pair was sister to Petermattinglyius, in the study of Wilkerson et al. (2015).

Bionomics and disease relations: 

Species of subgenus Pseudarmigeres are essentially forest mosquitoes. The immature stages are found in tree holes and bamboo.

Species of subgenus Pseudarmigeres are not of medical or economic importance to humans.

Distribution: 

Pseudarmigeres are Afrotropical species with distributions in Africa south of the Sahara.

Principal references: 

Edwards, 1941 (as subgenus Dunnius, taxonomy, adults, pupae); Hopkins, 1952 (as subgenus Dunnius, taxonomy, larvae); Jupp, 1996 (taxonomy, adults); Reinert, 2000 (female genitalia); Reinert et al., 2004, 2009 (as genus, morphology, phylogeny); Wilkerson et al., 2015 (phylogeny, classification).

Species: 
albomarginatus (Newstead, 1907) (in Newstead et al., 1907)
argenteoventralis (Theobald, 1909)
   subspecies argenteoventralis (Theobald, 1909)
   subspecies dunni Evans, 1928
michaelikati van Someren, 1946
   subspecies gurneri van Someren, 1946
   subspecies michaelikati van Someren, 1946
natalensis Edwards, 1930
Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith