Subgenus Protomacleaya Theobald, 1907

Type species: 

Aedes triseriatus (Say, 1823), original combination: Culex triseriatus.

Classification: 

Subfamily Culicinae, genus Aedes. Subgenus Protomacleaya is a taxon of convenience for 39 species that do not appear to share a common ancestry. Subgenus abbreviation – Pro.

Characteristics: 

Subgenus Protomacleaya is characterized and distinguished from other species of genus Aedes by the following combinations of characters. ADULTS – Vertex of head with numerous erect and narrow falcate scales; eyes wholly or partly separated above antennal pedicels; maxillary palpus and proboscis entirely dark-scaled, proboscis relatively stout; scutum usually dark-scaled with anterolateral or lateral white or silver markings; paratergite with large patch of scales; postpronotum completely covered with decumbent spatulate scales; mesokatepisternum with 3 distinct patches of scales; mesepimeron usually with large scale-patch; laterotergite of abdominal segment I with large patch of scales. MALE GENITALIA – Ninth tergal lobes each with 1‒9 setae in single row; gonocoxite with basal tergomesal patch of few to numerous setae, apical area of sternomesal surface without numerous long setae, median tergomesal sclerite absent to well developed, with tuft of setae when present; gonostylus short, outer surface near apex without setae; gonostylar claw long, spiniform; aedeagus simple, scoop-like, usually rounded and slightly expanded basally, more or less parallel-sided distally, truncate apically; paraproct with apical spine. LARVAE – Seta 3-VII weakly to moderately developed, short, with 2‒6 branches; seta 5-II-IV moderately to strongly developed; seta 12-I usually present; comb of most species with numerous fringed scales in large patch; ventral brush (seta 4-X) moderately to strongly developed, with 6‒8 pairs of setae on grid, setae 4b,c with 3‒12 branches in most species. PUPAE – Trumpet usually strongly pigmented; terga II‒VII without anterior transverse ridge; seta 1-II usually relatively strongly developed with long branches; seta 5-IV,V moderately long to long; seta 9-III‒VI usually fine, sometimes stout. See genus Aedes.

Phylogenetic relationships: 

Subgenus Pseudoskusea is a polyphyletic assemblage of species (Reinert et al., 2006, 2008). Zavortink (1972) noted that the species subgenus Protomacleaya in general resemble each other phenetically, by virtue of what they lack; hence, it is an unnatural group whose relationships with other generic-level taxa cannot be determined.

Bionomics and disease relations: 

The immature stages of species of subgenus Protomacleaya are found primarily in tree holes, but they are occasionally found in broken or cut bamboo internodes, coconut shells and pitcher plants, rock holes and artificial containers.

Aedes triseriatus is a vector of La Crosse virus and has been shown to be capable of transmitting Yellow Fever, Eastern Equine, Venezuelan and Western Equine Encephalomyelitis viruses in the laboratory. This species is also considered to be a potential vector of dog heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis).

Distribution: 

Protomacleaya ranges from southern Canada to northern Argentina and southeastern Brazil, but is absent from the West Indies. The Triseriatus, Kompi and Terrens Groups replace each other geographically; the Zoosophus Group occurs with the Triseriatus Group in southcentral United States and the Knabi Group is found with the Terrens Group in southern Mexico (Zavortink, 1972).

Principal references: 

Schick, 1970a, 1970b (Terrens Group [as group of Aedes (Finlaya)], taxonomy, distribution, bionomics, keys); Zavortink, 1972 (taxonomy, bionomics, distribution, keys); Reinert et al., 2004, 2006, 2008, 2009 (as ‘Ochlerotatus (Protomacleaya)’ sensu auctorum, morphology, phylogenetic relationships); Wilkerson & Linton, 2015 (status as subgenus of Aedes).

Species: 

aitkeni Schick, 1970
alboapicus Schick, 1970
amabilis Schick, 1970
argyrothorax Bonne-Wepster & Bonne, 1920
berlini Schick, 1970
bertrami Schick, 1970
braziliensis Gordon & Evans, 1922
brelandi Zavortink, 1972
buenaventura Schick, 1970
burgeri Zavortink, 1972
campana Schick, 1970
casali Schick, 1970
chionotum Zavortink, 1972
daryi Schick, 1970
diazi Schick, 1970
gabriel Schick, 1970
galindoi Schick, 1970
hendersoni Cockerell, 1918
heteropus Dyar, 1921
homoeopus Dyar, 1922
idanus Schick, 1970
impostor Schick, 1970
insolitus (Coquillett, 1906)
knabi (Coquillett, 1906)
kompi Vargas & Downs, 1950
metoecopus Dyar, 1925
niveoscutum Zavortink, 1972
podographicus Dyar & Knab, 1906
sandrae Zavortink, 1972
schicki Zavortink, 1972
schroederi Schick, 1970
sumidero Schick, 1970
tehuantepec Schick, 1970
terrens (Walker, 1856)
thorntoni Dyar & Knab, 1907
triseriatus (Say, 1823)
vargasi Schick, 1970
zavortinki Schick, 1970
zoosophus Dyar & Knab, 1918

Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith