Revision of Genus HEIZMANNIA Ludlow, 1905 from Thu, 2011-07-21 20:27

Type species: 

Heizmannia scintillans Ludlow, 1905.

Classification: 

Subfamily Culicinae, tribe Aedini. Heizmannia includes 38 species. Thirty-two species belong to subgenus Heizmannia and six are included in subgenus Mattinglyia.

Characteristics: 

Heizmannia are similar to Haemagogus in the New World. Adults are brightly coloured mosquitoes reminiscent of some sabethines. Many species have broad iridescent scales on the scutum, and species of subgenus Heizmannia have a small patch of setae on the mesopostnotum. The genus shares many of the characteristics found in species of other aedine genera in the Oriental Region, but is separable from these by the presence of one or more or various combinations of the following characters: erect scales restricted to back of head, occasionally absent; acrostichal setae and dorsocentral setae absent; prespiracular setae absent; postspiracular setae usually absent; upper mesokatepisternal setae absent; lower mesepimeral setae present; subspiracular area, postspiracular area, paratergite and laterotergite all with scales; upper calypter of wing with a fringe of setae, alula with broad flat scales on dorsal margin, anal vein (vein 1A) ending beyond base of mediocubital crossvein; tarsi normal, pulvilli not evident. The essential features distinguishing Heizmannia larvae from other genera include the following: hypostomal suture complete to posterior tentorial pit, maxilla with typical maxillary brush (subgenus Heizmannia) or a maxillalry bundle of coalesced filaments (subgenus Mattinglyia), seta 12-I absent, comb and pecten present, single pair of seta 1-S inserted well above base of siphon, saddle incomplete, ventral brush (seta 4-X) usually with four pairs of setae. Some larvae of other aedine genera closely resemble Heizmannia but usually differ in having setae 4,7-C small with few branches. If these setae are large with many branches as in Heizmannia, then seta 6-C is posterior to seta 4-C and/or it does not have two unequal branches. See Aedini.

Bionomics and disease relations: 

Heizmannia larvae occur mainly in tree-holes and bamboo, but some species are occasionally found in small ground pools and one species has been collected from split coconuts and artificial containers. Little is known about the bionomics of the adults. They are apparently active during the daytime in forests where females readily attack humans.

Distribution: 

Heizmannia species occur in the Oriental Region.

Principal references: 

Barraud, 1934 (southern Asia); Thurman, 1959 (Thailand); Delfinado, 1966 (Philippines); Mattingly, 1970 (revision); Reinert, 1973 (taxonomy); Tanaka et al., 1979 (Japan); Lee et al., 1988 (Australasian Region); Reinert et al., 2004, 2009 (classification, phylogeny); Rattanarithikul et al., 2010 (Thailand, keys, bionomics).

Species: 
Subgenus HEIZMANNIA Ludlow, 1905
aurea Brug, 1932
aureochaeta (Leicester, 1908)
carteri Amerasinghe, 1993
chandi Edwards, 1922
chengi Lien, 1968
communis (Leicester, 1908)
complex (Theobald, 1910)
covelli Barraud, 1929
demeilloni Mattingly, 1970
funerea (Leicester, 1908)
funerearoides Dong, Zhou & Gong, 2004
greenii (Theobald, 1905)
heterospina Gong & Lu, 1986
himalayensis Edwards, 1922
indica (Theobald, 1905)
kana Tanaka, Mizusawa & Saugstad, 1970
kanhsienensis Tung, 1955
lii Wu, 1936
macdonaldi Mattingly, 1957
mattinglyi Thurman, 1959
maximalepido Dong, Zhou & Gong, 2004
menglianensis Lu & Gong, 1986
menglianeroides Dong, Dong & Zhou, 2003
persimilis Mattingly, 1970
propinqua Mattingly, 1970
proxima Mattingly, 1970
reidi mattingly, 1957
ruiliensis Dong, Zhou & Wang, 1997
scanloni Mattingly, 1970
scintillans Ludlow, 1905
taiwanensis Lien, 1968
tengchongensis Dong, Wang & Zhou, 2002
thelmae Mattingly, 1970
viridis Barraud, 1929
Subgenus MATTINGLYIA Lien, 1968

achaetae (Leicester, 1908)
catesi (Lien, 1968)
discrepans (Edwards, 1922)
lui Gong & Li, 1999
occidentayunnana (Gong & Lu, 1991)
tripunctata (Theobald, 1908)
Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith