Aedes Meigen, 1818. [The subfamily name Aedinae was established by Neveu-Lemaire (1902) (as Aedeinae). In accordance with the Principle of Coordination (International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, 1999: Article 36.1), Neveu-Lemaire (1902) is considered to have simultaneously established the coordinate tribal name Aedini.]
Subfamily Culicinae. Aedini is the largest tribe of mosquitoes with 1,254 species classified in 81 genera and two groups of incertae sedis, i.e. 'Aedes' sensu auctorum (5 species) and 'Ochlerotatus' sensu auctorum (69 species). The genera are as follow (number of species in parenthesis): Abraedes (1), Acartomyia (3), Aedes (12), Aedimorphus (66), Alanstonea (2), Albuginosus (9), Armigeres (58), Ayurakitia (2), Aztecaedes (1), Belkinius (1), Bifidistylus (2), Borichinda (1), Bothaella (6), Bruceharrisonius (8), Cancraedes (10), Catageiomyia (28), Catatassomyia (1), Christophersiomyia (5), Collessius (9), Cornetius (1), Dahliana (3), Danielsia (3), Dendroskusea (5), Diceromyia (14), Dobrotworskyius (7), Downsiomyia (30), Edwardsaedes (3), Elpeytonius (2), Eretmapodites (48), Finlaya (36), Fredwardsius (1), Georgecraigius (3), Geoskusea (10), Gilesius (2), Gymnometopa (1), Haemagogus (28), Halaedes (3), Heizmannia (38), Himalaius (2), Hopkinsius (7), Howardina (34), Huaedes (3), Hulecoeteomyia (13), Indusius (1), Isoaedes (1), Jarnellius (5), Jihlienius (3), Kenknightia (12), Kompia (1), Leptosomatomyia (1), Levua (1), Lewnielsenius (1), Lorrainea (5), Luius (1), Macleaya (11), Molpemyia (3), Mucidus (14), Neomelaniconion (28), Nyctomyia (2); Ochlerotatus (197), Opifex (2), Paraedes (8), Patmarksia (13), Petermattinglyius (5), Phagomyia (16), Polyleptiomyia (2), Pseudarmigeres (5), Psorophora (48), Rampamyia (3), Rhinoskusea (4), Sallumia (2), Scutomyia (9), Skusea (4), Stegomyia (128), Tanakaius (2), Tewarius (4), Udaya (3), Vansomerenis (3), Verrallina (95), Zavortinkius (11), Zeugnomyia (4). Species of this tribe are referred to as 'aedines'. NOTE: Only the 11 genera indicated in boldface are recognised in the traditional classification of Aedini. The others are recognised as subgenera within a very large polyphyletic genus Aedes.
Species of tribe Aedini are extremely varied, and many are difficult to identify to genus because of overlapping suites of shared anatomical features. Hence, combinations of characters are required to define the majority of the genera, subgenera and species. General features of the tribe include the presence of toothed ungues (tarsal claws) and a pointed abdomen in most females. Although toothed ungues are not universally present, they are not found in any other tribe of Culicinae. Larvae have relatively short, stout siphons with a single pair of seta 1-S (except for species of Aedes s.s. and Ochlerotatus subgenus Rusticoidus) inserted well above the base, usually beyond the middle of the siphon. A comb is always present on segment VIII and the ventral brush is usually represented by five or more pairs of setae.
The heterogeneity of the tribe is illustrated by the following description of principal taxonomic features (excluding those above) found in the adult and larval stages. ADULTS - Compound eyes contiguous or separated above antennae; erect scales of head numerous, restricted to a single posterior row, or absent; clypeus with or without scales, never setae; proboscis variable in length and development; antennae distinctly shorter to slightly longer than proboscis; scutal scales and setae varied; mesopostnotum with or without setae; paratergite with or without scales; antepronota large or small, sometimes close together; pleural setae and scales varied; base of hindcoxa in line with or below base of mesomeron; pulvilli not evident; tarsi normal; wing membrane with distinct microtrichia; cell R2 longer than vein R2+3; vein Rs without basal spur; vein 1A ending distal to base of mediocubital crossvein; base of subcosta without setae ventrally except in Opifex; scales of alula varied; upper calypter usually with complete line of setae or hair-like scales, sometimes reduced in number or absent; laterotergite varied, completely or partially covered with scales or bare. LARVAE - Occipital foramen normal, circular; collar varied, usually distinct; hypostomal suture complete; seta 2-C absent; seta 3-C dorsal in position; seta 13-P rarely present; no plumose or palmate setae on thorax or abdomen; seta 12-I present or absent; pecten usually present, sometimes absent; saddle usually incomplete. See Culicinae.
Morphological and molecular evidence indicates that Aedini is a monophyletic taxon (see review of Harbach, 2007; Reidenbach et al., 2009). Based on the assumption that annectant forms may have been derived by hybrid origin, Belkin (1962) believed that Aedini differentiated in the Indomalayan area of the Old World where the majority of annectant forms presently exist. The genera of Aedini fall within to two genus groups, the Ochlerotatus Genus Group and the more highly derived Aedes Genus Group.
Aedini was recovered as a paraphyletic lineage relative to a monophyletic Mansoniini in the phylogenetic study of Harbach & Kitching (1998), as the sister of Mansonia in the studies of Reinert et al. (2004, 2006, 2009) and as sister to Orthopodomyia + Mansonia in the study of Reinert et al. (2008) based on morphological data. Aedini was recovered as the sister to Orthopodomyia + Coquillettidia in the study of Reidenbach et al. (2009) based on combined molecular (six nuclear genes) and morphological data. Aedini was not recovered as a monophyletic group in the analyses of Wilkerson et al. (2015) based on equal weighting of the data set of Reinert et al. (2009) ‒ Mansonia + Psorophora was recovered in a sister relationship to the other generic-level taxa of the tribe.
Aedine larvae inhabit a diversity of habitats. Some species utilise temporary ground waters such as pools, puddles, hoof prints, wallows and the margins of swampy or marshy areas. Other species utilise rock holes, crab holes, tree holes, leaf axils and flower bracts, pitcher plants and man-made containers. The females of many species readily attack humans. Both daytime and night-time biters are known.
Certain members of the tribe are of great importance in the transmission of viruses and helminths to humans and other animals.
Aedini are world-wide in distribution, but are better represented in the Old World and the Nearctic Region.
Belkin, 1962 (taxonomy, South Pacific); Belkin et al., 1970 (West Indies); Lu & Lu, 1987 (China); Huang, 2001 (Afrotropical Region, key to traditional subgenera of Aedes); Reinert et al., 2004, 2006, 2008, 2009 (phylogeny, classification); Reidenbach et al., 2009 (phylogeny); Rattanarithikul et al., 2010 (keys, Thailand).
'Aedes' sensu auctorum (see).
'Ochlerotatus' sensu auctorum (see).