Gymnometopa mediovittata (Coquillett, 1906), original combination: Stegomyia mediovittata.
Subfamily Culicinae, tribe Aedini. Gymnometopa is monobasic. Genus abbreviation – Gy.
Gymnometopa is easily separated from the other New World genera of tribe Aedini by the following combinations of characters; characters that define the Gymnometopa clade in the phylogenetic analysis of Reinert et al. (2009) are indicated with an asterisk (*). ADULTS ‒ Vertex of head, paratergite and all 3 lobes of scutellum with broad decumbent scales; compound eye bordered by 3 patches of broad decumbent silvery scales, scales of interocular space all broad, setae absent; antennal pedicel with patch of broad overlapping silvery scales on mesal surface, flagellomeres 2‒10 of females with 8 setae in basal whorls; maxillary palpus of males with palpomeres 4 and 5 *upturned and sparsely setose; *proboscis with pale scales; scutum with lines and patches of golden and silvery-white scales, *scutal fossal scales sparse, *dark scales anteriorly on antealar area; *scales on lateral lobes of scutellum all broad; parascutellar setae absent; postpronotum with narrow dark falcate scales along upper margin and broad decumbent silver scales in front of mesothoracic spiracle; *1‒4 upper proepisternal setae; *lower prealar scales absent; *mesepimeral scales in 2 patches; *alula of wing with broad scales on *margin and *dorsal surface; *postprocoxal scales present; *midfemur and hindfemur with long pale stripe on anterior surface; *hindtibia dark with pale-scaled areas. FEMALE GENITALIA ‒ Tergum IX comprised of 2 plates separated by lightly pigmented area; *cercal scales present, *distal part of cercus narrowly rounded; insula lip-like. MALE GENITALIA ‒ Gonocoxite with large membranous basal sternomesal area, specialised setae (sinuous and coarse to near apices) along distal sternomesal margin and a strongly differentiated seta borne on basal tergomesal tubercle; *gonostylus/gonocoxite index 0.3−0.4; gonostylar claw spiniform, *˃0.4 length of gonostylus; claspette with long stem, claspette filament with retrorse angle on convex side; aedeagus expanded distally. LARVAE ‒ Antenna without spicules; *labiogula about a wide as long; setae 1‒3-P on common support plate; seta 5-P branched; seta 12-I absent; seta 2-VII branched; seta 3-VII long, strong, single; seta 9-III‒V moderately to strongly developed, stellate; seta 10-VII single; *seta 12-VII inserted at approximately same level as seta 13-VIII; comb scales with 1 or 2 long and usually 1‒3 shorter fringe-free spines borne on large basal plate; *siphon acus absent; pecten spines simple or apically laciniate, in dorsally curved row; seta 1a-S single; siphon acus absent; saddle incomplete ventrally, with large spines on caudal margin; *seta 2-X ≥0.9 length of seta 3-X; *seta 3-X with 3 or 4 branches; ventral brush (seta 4-X) on strongly sclerotised boss, *seta 4d-X with 5 or more branches, not plumose. PUPAE ‒ Trumpet without tracheoid area; seta 6-I shorter than seta 7-I; seta 3-II longer than seta 6-II; seta 2-III‒V inserted far laterad of seta 1; seta 5-IV,V short, 0.5‒0.8 length of tergum; seta 6-VII strongly developed, long; seta 9-III‒VI usually elongate, strong, *seta 9-VII shorter than seta 6-VII, seta 9-VIII with 6‒16 long strong primary branches; *seta 1-Pa 0.4−0.6 length of paddle. See Aedini.
Dyar (1928) and Zavortink (1972) stated that Gymnometopa is definitely related to Howardina. Zavortink also suggested that Gymnometopa is "possibly related to the monotypic subgenera of Aedes [i.e. genera Abraedes, Aztecaedes and Kompia] occurring north of the tropics in Mexico and the southwestern United States. Gymnometopa was recovered as sister to a clade comprised of those three genera and Lewnielsenius in the phylogenetic analysis of Reinert et al. (2009) based on extensive morphological data of all life stages: Gymnometopa + (Kompia + (Aztecaedes + (Abraedes + Lewnielsenius))). Gymnometopa was recovered as the sister of subgenus Abraedes in the phylogenetic analysis of Wilkerson et al. (2015). In contrast, Gymnometopa was recovered as sister to Georgecraigius in the maximum likelihood phylogeny of Soghigian et al. (2017) based on seven molecular markers.
The immature stages of Gy. mediovittata are found in a wide variety of habitats, including tree holes, broken and cut bamboo internodes, bromeliad axils, rock holes, ground pools and artificial containers. Adults have been found resting in tree holes and crab holes, and females have been captured while feeding on humans and donkeys.
Poole-Smith et al. (2015) demonstrated that Gymnometopa mediovittata (as Aedes mediovittatus) maintained in colony derived from eggs collected in Puerto Rico is a competent vector of dengue fever virus.
Gymnometopa mediovittata is found in the West Indies, from Cuba and the Cayman Islands eastward and southward through Jamaica, Hispaniola and Puerto Rico to the Virgin Islands. The species is also recorded from north-central Venezuela.
Zavortink, 1972 (as subgenus of Aedes, taxonomy, bionomics, distribution); Reinert, 2002 (as subgenus of Ochlerotatus, female genitalia); Reinert et al., 2004, 2006, 2008, 2009 (generic status, morphology, phylogeny); Wilkerson et al., 2015 (as subgenus of Aedes, phylogeny); Soghigian et al., 2017 (as subgenus of Aedes, phylogenetic relationships).