Verrallina yusafi (Barraud, 1931), original combination: Aedes yusafi.
Subfamily Culicinae, tribe Aedini, genus Verrallina. Subgenus Harbachius includes 13 species. Subgenus abbreviation – Har.
The following combinations of characters distinguish species of Harbachius from those of subgenera Neomacleaya and Verrallina. ADULTS – Eyes separated dorsally; mesepimeron without fine hair-like setae posterior or ventral to scale-patch; hindungues of both females and males with tooth. FEMALE GENITALIA – Tergum VIII index about 0.58–0.80, scales distally; sternum VIII with numerous stout setae on apical lobes, scales on relatively small area; postgenital lobe relatively narrow, apex with median indentation or broadly rounded; upper vaginal lip with median posterior area produced into large horizontal shield extending over or around spermathecal eminence; lower vaginal sclerite comprised of a pair of ribbon-like apically fused plates, attached to lower vaginal lip, without spicules; insula absent, apparently replaced by apical U-shaped projection of lower vaginal sclerite, without tuberculi; spermathecal eminence relatively simple, without spicules, with spine-lined cephalad pouch. MALE GENITALIA – Gonocoxite with moderately broad basotergal apodeme; prosophallus comprised of a pair of narrow apically approximated sclerites, longer than twice length of phallus; phallus comprised of pair of aedeagal sclerites joined by sternal bridge, each sclerite with narrow projection basolaterally extending at approximately right angle; opisthophallus usually long, with caudal margin sharply rounded or pointed; paramere longer than 1.5 times length of phallus. LARVAE – Seta 1-A single or double; seta 7-C with 2–7 branches (usually 2–4); seta 8-C branched; seta 13-C with 2–5 branches (rarely single); seta 7-I single; comb scales with stout apical spine and short lateral denticles; seta 2-X with 3–6 branches. PUPAE – Cephalothorax with well-developed ocular facets of compound eye; trumpet usually with proximal 0.4 somewhat expanded; seta 2-IV–VI thin, inserted more cephalad than seta 4; seta 9-VIII usually double or triple. See genus Verrallina.
Harbachius was recovered as the sister of subgenus Neomacleaya + subgenus Verrallina in the morphology-based phylogenetic analysis Aedini conducted by Reinert et al. (2004), and as sister to a clade in which Verrallina was paraphyletic with respect to Neomacleaya in the much more comprehensive analysis of the tribe conducted by Reinert et al. (2009). In agreement with Reinert et al. (2004), Harbachius was recovered as the sister of subgenera Neomacleaya + Verrallina in the maximum likelihood phylogeny of Soghigian et al. (2017) based on molecular markers.
Very little is known about the biology of most species of Harbachius. Larvae have been found in flood pools, residual pools in streambeds, ground pools in forest and once (Ve. nobukonis) in a fox hole. Larvae of Ve. hamistylus have been found in a Pandanus swamp as well as in residual stream pools. Females of Ve. fragilis, Ve. hamistylus, Ve. nobukonis, Ve. stunga and Ve. yusafi are known to attack and bite humans in shaded areas, mainly in forest, during the daytime. Verrallina yusafi has been collection biting in both daytime and night. Adults of Ve. ramalingami were collected in a rubber plantation, but it is not known if the females will bite humans.
Species of Harbachius do not appear to be of medical importance to humans.
Species of subgenus Harbachius are recorded from the following countries: Cambodia (3 species), India (3), Indonesia (1), Japan (1), Malaysia (2 peninsular; 3 Borneo), Nepal (1), Philippines (2), Russia (1), Sri Lanka (2), Thailand (2) and Vietnam (1).
Reinert, 1974 (several species, as species of Aedes subgenus of Verrallina, taxonomy, bionomics and distribution); Reinert, 1984 (several species, as subgenus of Aedes, species descriptions, keys, distributions, bionomics); Reinert, 1999 (as new subgenus, subgenus and type species descriptions, keys); Reinert, 2001 (female genitalia); Reinert et al., 2004, 2009 (morphology, phylogeny); Rattanarithikul et al., 2010 (Thailand, keys, bionomics); Soghigian et al., 2017 (phylogenetic relationships).
abdita (Barraud, 1931)
consonensis (Reinert, 1973)
fragilis Leicester, 1908
hamistylus (Laffoon, 1946)
indecorabilis Leicester, 1908
nobukonis (Yamada, 1932)
pahangi (Delfinado, 1968)
ramalingami (Reinert, 1974)
robertsi (Laffoon, 1946)
srilankensis (Reinert, 1977)
stunga (Klein, 1973)
uniformis (Theobald, 1910)
yusafi (Barraud, 1931)