Zeugnomyia gracilis Leicester, 1908.
Subfamily Culicinae, tribe Aedini. Genus Zeugnomyia includes only four species. Genus abbreviation – Ze.
Zeugnomyia are rather small mosquitoes characterised by a broad vertical stripe of silver scales on the sides of the thorax. The head, scutum and abdominal segments are also ornamented with patches of flat silver scales. Major differential characters include the following: dorsocentral setae, prespiracular setae and postspiracular setae absent; one lower mesepimeral seta present; hindcoxa more or less in line with base of mesomeron; upper calypter of wing with fringe of setae; alula bare; cell R2 distinctly shorter than vein R2+3; vein 1A ends only slightly beyond level of origin of mediocubital crossvein; pulvilli not evident. Larvae are similar to the larvae of other aedine genera in the Oriental Region. They exhibit the following characteristics: seta 7-C slender, delicate and single or double; hypostomal suture complete, reaching the posterior tentorial pit; comb scales in a single row (distinction from Heizmannia); pecten present (distinction from Armigeres); saddle incomplete, with strongly developed spines along the posterior margin (distinction from Udaya). The combined characteristics of seta 7-C, the comb scales and the saddle are needed to distinguish Zeugnomyia from many other aedine species. See Aedini.
Zeugnomyia was recovered as the sister of Belkinius, and this pair was sister to Udaya, in the phylogeny of tribe Aedini generated in the morphology-based phylogenetic study of Reinert et al. (2009). Udaya fell within a polytomy with subgenera Belkinius, Bothaella, Catatassomyia and Zeugnomyia in the phylogeny reconstructed by Wilkerson et al. (2015). The only species of Zeugnomyia, Ze. gracilis, included in the maximum likelihood phylogeny of Soghigian et al. (2017) based on molecular markers was recovered in a basal relationship to a clade comprised of Armigeres + Eretmapodites.
Little is known about the bionomics of Zeugnomyia. They appear to be restricted to shaded areas in forests. Larvae have been found in small collections of water in fallen leaves, axils of Anahaw palm, tree-holes, cut bamboo and an artificial container (tin can). The larva of Ze. gracilis reportedly preys on other mosquito larvae and the adult females of this species are known to bite humans and other warm-blooded animals that enter their haunts.
Zeugnomyia species are not known to vector pathogens of human diseases.
Species of Zeugnomyia occur in eastern areas of the Oriental Region, principally in the Philippine Islands.
Baisas & Feliciano, 1953 (Philippines, descriptions of three species); Delfinado, 1966 (Philippines, genus and species descriptions, keys, bionomics); Reinert et al., 2004, 2009 (morphology, phylogeny); Rattanarithikul et al., 2010 (Thailand, keys, bionomics); Wilkerson et al., 2015 (phylogeny); Soghigian et al., 2017 (phylogenetic relationships).