Culex amazonensis (Lutz, 1905), original combination: Aedinus amazonensis.
Subfamily Culicinae, genus Culex. Subgenus Aedinus includes four species. See Culex classification, Subgenus Aedinus). Subgenus abbreviation – Ads.
ADULTS – Small, dark, unadorned mosquitoes; decumbent scales of vertex all narrow; antenna slightly longer than proboscis in females, subequal to proboscis in males; maxillary palpus short in both sexes, apparently with 4 palpomeres, palpomeres 1 and 2 ankylosed; proboscis longer than forefemur; scutum with narrow dark falcate scales; acrostichal setae absent; lower mesepimeral seta present; pleural scaling restricted to few dark scales on postpronotum and rows of broad translucent scales along mesokatepisternal setae; wing and legs dark-scaled; ungues of females simple, fore- and midungues of males enlarged, unequal, larger unguis of foreleg (but not midleg) with tooth, hindungues as in females; abdominal terga predominantly dark-scaled. MALE GENITALIA – Lobes of tergum IX distinctly separated, digitiform, bearing a few weak apical setae; gonocoxite with scales; subapical lobe submedian in position, undivided, bearing 1 (usually) or 2 appendages; gonostylus at least half length of gonocoxite, relatively simple or enlarged subapically; gonostylar claw subapical in position; phallosome not columnar, lateral plate with a broadly sclerotised basal hook (usually without denticles), a caudally directed blunt apical process and 2 short sternal processes; paraproct with crown of 5–9 teeth; cercal setae indistinct. LARVAE – Head capsule faintly imbricate; antenna with long multi-branched seta 1-A inserted beyond middle; setae 2,3-C absent; seta 3-P moderately long, approaching 0.5 length of setae 1,2-P, single or double; abdominal seta 2 inserted relatively close to seta 1 within posterior half of terga; setae 1,2-VIII on distinct sclerotised plates; comb scales in patch; siphon long and slender; 5 or 6 posterolateral pairs of seta 1-S beyond pecten and 2 pairs of anterolateral seta 2a-S, proximal one inserted opposite pecten; saddle complete, with distinct attached acus, posterior margin without spines; seta 1-X short, submarginal; seta 2-X long, with 2 short postbasal branches; seta 3-X long, single; ventral brush (seta 4-X) with 6 pairs of setae on grid. PUPAE – Cephalothorax and abdomen with distinct pattern of pigmentation; trumpet moderately long, tracheoid area distinct; seta 2-III inserted mesad of seta 1, seta 2-VI,VII inserted laterad of seta 1; seta 9-VII,VIII single, short, distinctly shorter than tergum; paddle with distal pigmented spot along midrib, margin without spicules; seta 1-Pa and seta 2-Pa absent. See genus Culex.
The adults of Aedinus resemble those of Tinolestes and Belkinomyia, but the phyletic relationships of these three taxa are uncertain. Aedinus was recovered in a sequentially nested relationship with Anoedioporpa, Tinolestes and Belkinomyia in the morphology-based phylogenetic study of Culicini conducted by Harbach et al. (2012).
Immature stages inhabit the margins and root caves of swamps in primary forest, and are occasionally found in ground pools in partially forested areas. Females are not known to bite humans.
Females of Aedinus harbour and apparently transmit a variety of arboviruses to forest animals.
Neotropical Region, primarily northern South America into Panama.
Berlin & Belkin, 1980 (subgenus and species descriptions, keys, bionomics, distributions).