Subfamily Culicinae, genus Culex. Subgenus Maillotia includes nine species. See Culex classification, Subgenus Maillotia). Subgenus abbreviation – Mai.
ADULTS – Medium-sized mosquitoes; decumbent scales of vertex narrow and pale; ocular line with narrow scales; maxillary palpus of females short; maxillary palpus of males shorter to longer than proboscis, slender, almost devoid of setae; proboscis longer than forefemur; scutum with rather coarse predominantly pale scales; thoracic pleura with extensive scale patches, prealar and postspiracular scales usually present; lower mesepimeral seta present; wing dark-scaled; legs mainly dark-scaled, femora with distinct or inconspicuous pale knee spots; hindtarsomere 1 as long or only slightly shorter than hindtibia; abdominal terga with apical pale bands. MALE GENITALIA – Ninth tergal lobes widely separated, small, bearing setae; gonocoxite with or without scales; subapical lobe median or postmedian in position, divided or undivided (usually), 2 or 3 rod-like setae always present, setae d-f and foliform seta usually present; phallosome short, broad, oval, sub-spherical or cup-shaped in tergal view, tergal bridge at or just above middle of lateral plates, denticles not developed or sometimes only a few present on apex; proctiger heavily sclerotised with crown of flat blunt spicules arranged in row or sometimes mixed with coarse pointed spicules in a tuft. LARVAE – Antenna long, seta 1-A inserted near mid-length, setae 2,3-A inserted some distance before apex; setae 5,6-C long and conspicuous, much thicker and longer than seta 4-C; seta 3-P nearly as long as setae 1,2-P; comb scales fringed, in patch; siphon with anterolateral row of setae; seta 1-S in close-set rows or single median posterior row; seta 2-S well developed; saddle complete; seta 2-X branched; seta 3-X single; ventral brush (seta 4-X) with 5–7 pairs of setae on grid and 1 or more (usually) precratal setae. PUPAE – Seta 5-V,VII nearly as long or longer than 2 terga; seta 6-III–VI branched; seta 1-Pa and seta 2-Pa present. See genus Culex.
The phylogenetic relationships of Maillotia are uncertain. It appears to be most closely related to Afroculex, Barraudius and Lasiosiphon. Sirivanakarn (1972) hypothesised a close relationship between Maillotia and subgenera Eumelanomyia, Lophoceraomyia and Neoculex based on similarities of the adults, and suggested that Maillotia is the more primitive of these groups. The parsimony analysis of Mallampalli (1995), based on morphological characters of larvae, pupae and adults, indicated that subgenera Maillotia, Allimanta and Culex are the most primitive taxa of Culex. The morphological data analysed in the studies of St John (2007) and Harbach et al. (2012) indicated that Maillotia is most closely related to Afroculex.
The immature stages of Maillotia species are found in shaded ground pools, stream pools, rock pools and other collections of ground water. Very little is known about the bionomics of the adults.
Species of subgenus Maillotia are of no medical importance to humans.
Principally the Afrotropical Region, northern Africa and southwestern Asia. One species (Cx. hortensis) extends into Spain, Portugal and Eurasia.
arbieeni Salem, 1938 avianus de Meillon, 1943 deserticola Kirkpatrick, 1925 hortensis Ficalbi, 1889 subspecies hortensis Ficalbi, 1889 subspecies maderensis Mattingly, 1955 peringueyi Edwards, 1924 quettensis Mattingly, 1955 salisburiensis Theobald, 1901 subspecies capensis de Meillon, 1935 subspecies coursi Doucet, 1949 subspecies salisburiensis Theobald, 1901 seyrigi Edwards, 1941 subsalisburiensis Hervé & Geoffroy, 1974