Subfamily Culicinae, genus Culex. Subgenus Micraedes includes eight species. See Culex classification, Subgenus Micraedes). Subgenus abbreviation – Mca.
ADULTS -- Small mosquitoes; proboscis, maxillary palpus, wing and legs dark-scaled; decumbent scales of vertex narrow; antenna subequal to proboscis; proboscis distinctly longer or subequal to forefemur; maxillary palpus of females with 3 palpomeres; palpus of males with 5 palpomeres, palpomere 5 sometimes minute; scutum with narrow curved scales; acrostichal setae present; pleural integument of thorax generally yellowish; pleural scaling usually absent, a few scales on upper margin of postpronotum, along mesokatepisternal setae and among upper mesepimeral setae; lower mesepimeral seta present or absent; ungues of all legs simple in females, fore- and midungues enlarged and unequal in males, larger unguis with a submedian tooth, hindungues as in females; abdominal terga with basolateral pale patches. MALE GENITALIA – Ninth tergal lobes small, approximated, usually distinct and mound-like with varied number of setae; gonocoxite roughly triangular in outline, moderately inflated, usually without scales; subapical lobe more or less distinctly divided in most species, proximal division usually with 2 rod-like setae, distal division with or without a prominent foliform seta; gonostylus relatively simple, attenuate distally or distal third thickened, usually with a row of fine ridges distally on sternal margin and 2 distinct, short subapical setae on tergal surface; gonostylar claw broadened distally, inserted subapically; phallosome not columnar, lateral plate with broadly sclerotised basal hook, a long posteriorly directed apical process and a sternal spine; paraproct strongly developed, produced into conspicuous dorsal conical lobe below ninth tergal lobe, with crown of 6–13 teeth; cercal setae present. LARVAE – Antenna relatively short and slender, uniformly tapered, seta 1-A near middle of shaft, branched; seta 2,3-C not developed; seta 5–7-C always multiple-branched, with at least 4 branches, long, subequal in length, seta 5,6-C distinctly longer than antenna, usually 4-branched; setae 0-P, 1,3,14-M and 1,2,13-T stellate; setae 1,3-P at least moderately long, multi-branched; setae 1,2,4,11 ,13-I, 1,2,5,9,13-II, 1,2,5,7,9,13-III–VI and 1,2,5,8,10,13-VII usually stellate; seta 2 always on anterior area of tergum; seta 7-I long, double; seta 7-II developed like 7-I; comb scales in patch; siphon long, pecten on proximal 0.4; seta 1-S strongly developed, inserted beyond pecten, comprised of 4 pairs of posterolateral setae and 2 pairs of anterolateral setae; saddle complete, with long marginal spines on caudolateral border; seta 1-X short to moderately long, single, double or forked; seta 2-X long, at least double, without postbasal branches; seta 3-X long, single; ventral brush (seta 4-X) with 5 pairs of setae on grid with distinct lateral bars. PUPAE – Trumpet moderately long; seta 5-CT strongly developed, at least twice length of seta 4-CT; setae 10,11-CT moderately close together, removed from seta 12; seta 2-III-VII inserted cephalad or anteromesal to seta 1; seta 2-VII always shorter than 0.8 length of tergum; seta 9-II–VI inserted anterolateral to seta 6; seta 9-VIII long, triple, either subequal to or distinctly longer than tergum VIII; caudal lobe of tergum VIII overlies lateral part of tergite IX; seta 1-IX absent; paddle margins with distinct hair-like spicules in some species; seta 1-Pa present, seta 2-Pa absent. See genus Culex.
Micraedes appears to be closely related to Microculex and Carrollia. It was recovered as the sister of Carrollia in a clade comprised of members of these three groups in the parsimony analyses of Harbach et al. (2012) based on morphological data.
The immature stages are found in leaf axils, primarily in epiphytic and terrestrial bromeliads and rarely in aroids. Very little is known about the bionomics of the adults. Collections of resting adults suggest that Micraedes are active during crepuscular or nocturnal hours.
Species of subgenus Micraedes are not known to be of medical or economic importance.
Micraedes is confined to the American Mediterranean Region sensu Belkin (1962). Species are recorded from the Antilles, Costa Rica, Cuba, Jamaica, Mexico, Panama, Tobago, Trinidad and the USA (Florida).
Berlin, 1969 (revision, taxonomy, subgenus and species descriptions, keys to species groups and species, bionomics, distributions).