Subfamily Culicinae, genus Culex. Subgenus Microculex includes 33 species. See Culex classification, Subgenus Microculex). Subgenus abbreviation – Mcx.
ADULTS – Small mosquitoes; head with narrow scales on vertex and orbital line; maxillary palpus of females with 3(?) palpomeres, palpus of males as long or longer than proboscis, with 5 palpomeres; scutum with pattern of dark, golden or silvery scales; acrostichal setae present or absent; antepronotum with narrow scales; mesokatepisternum with scales; lower mesepimeral seta present; vein R2 and vein R3 of wing with narrow scales; legs entirely dark-scaled (some species) or tarsi with basal pale bands (most species); abdominal terga dark-scaled. MALE GENITALIA – Tergum IX lobes distinct, widely separated; gonocoxite without scales; subapical lobe subapical in position, little if at all divided, proximal division with 2 rod-like setae, distal division weakly developed but usually bearing a number of setae; gonostylus simple, tapered distally; phallosome not columnar, lateral plate with long basal hook; paraproct with single row of blunt spicules. LARVAE – Antenna shorter than head, constricted beyond seta 1-A, seta 1-A inserted about 0.8 from base; seta 2-C weakly developed or absent; seta 3-P shorter than setae 1,2-P; comb with many scales in patch; siphon usually very long and slender; seta 1-S inserted distal to pecten; saddle long, complete; seta 1-X small, branched; setae 2,3-X long, single; ventral brush (seta 4-X) with 4 pairs of setae on grid. PUPAE – Trumpet long and slender, tracheoid beyond base; meatus without slit from proximal part of pinna; seta 2-III inserted mesad of seta 1; seta 2-VI inserted laterad of seta 1; seta 9-VIII relatively long, subequal to length of tergum VIII; caudal lobe of tergum VIII not overlying lateral part of tergum IX; seta 1-Pa present, seta 2-Pa absent. See genus Culex.
Microculex appears to be related to Micraedes and Carrollia. It was recovered in a paraphyletic basal relationship to the reciprocally monophyletic subgenera Micraedes and Carrollia in the parsimony analyses of Harbach et al. (2012) based on morphological data.
The immature stages inhabit epiphytic bromeliads, and less frequently bamboo internodes. Eggs are enclosed separately in gelatinous envelopes. Lane (1953) indicated that adult females prefer to feed on birds.
Species of subgenus Microculex are not of medical importance to humans.
Neotropical Region, from Mexico to northern Argentina.
albipes Lutz, 1904 (in Bourroul, 1904) aphylactus Root, 1927 aureus Lane & Whitman, 1951 azymus Dyar & Knab, 1906 carioca Lane & Whitman, 1951 chryselatus Dyar & Knab, 1919 consolator Dyar & Knab, 1906 daumastocampa Dyar & Knab, 1908 davisi Kumm, 1933 dubitans Lane & Whitman, 1951 elongatus Rozeboom & Komp, 1950 gairus Root, 1927 gaudeator Dyar & Knab, 1907 hedys Root, 1927 imitator Theobald, 1903 subspecies imitator Theobald, 1903 subspecies retrosus Lane & Whitman, 1951 inimitabilis Dyar & Knab, 1906 subspecies fuscatus Lane & Whitman, 1951 subspecies inimitabilis Dyar & Knab, 1906 intermedius Lane & Whitman, 1951 jenningsi Dyar & Knab, 1907 kukenan Anduze, 1942 lanei Oliveira Coutinho & Forattini, 1962 microphyllus Root, 1927 neglectus Lutz, 1904 (in Bourroul, 1904) pleuristriatus Theobald, 1903 pulidoi Cova Garcia & Sutil Oramas, 1974 reducens Lane & Whitman, 1951 reginae Floch & Fauran, 1955 rejector Dyar & Knab, 1906 shopei Forattini & Toda, 1966 siphanulatus Lourenço-de-Oliveira & da Silva, 1987 stonei Lane & Whitman, 1943 sutili Cova Garcia & Pulido F., 1974 worontzowi Pessoa & Galvão, 1936 xenophobus Ronderos, 1965