Culex boninensis Bohart, 1957.
Subfamily Culicinae, genus Culex. Subgenus Sirivanakarnius is monobasic. See Culex classification, Subgenus Sirivanakarnius). Subgenus abbreviation – Sir.
ADULTS – Proboscis and maxillary palpus lightly speckled with pale scales, proboscis with ill-defined median pale ring; wing and tarsi dark-scaled; proboscis subequal to forefemur in females, slightly longer in males; maxillary palpus with 3 palpomeres in females, 5 in males, palpomeres 3–5 not setose; acrostichal setae present; thoracic pleura with distinct scale-patches; lower mesepimeral seta absent; hindtarsomere 1 as long or slightly longer than hindtibia; abdominal terga with basolateral pale patches. MALE GENITALIA – Tergum IX lobes poorly developed, widely separated, each bearing 6–9 setae in a single row; gonocoxite without scales; subapical lobe undivided, in postmedian position, with setae a-c rod-like as in most Culex, setae d,e represented by one small hair-like setae, seta f distally enlarged and borne lateral to d,e, seta g a narrow cycle-shaped leaf; gonostylus short, stout, tapered distally, with annulations dorsally at apex; lateral plate of phallosome relatively short, bearing a caudally projecting clump of teeth; paraproct with crown comprised of small spine-like spicules and row of conspicuous lateral blades, basal lateral arm moderately developed; cercal setae present. LARVAE – Antenna long, about 0.8 length of head, slender, seta 1-A strongly developed, with numerous branches, inserted about 0.7 from base of antenna; insertions of setae 4,5-C form points of regular triangle at mid-length of head; seta 8-C inserted on level with seta 9-C, usually single; seta 3-P as long as setae 1,2-P; seta 8-P strongly developed, as long as setae 1–3-P, 2- or 3-branched; seta 7-II much shorter than seta 7-I but distinctly longer than seta 7-III–V, seta 7-VI double; siphon moderately long, straight; pecten spines with distinct ventral denticles; seta 1-S with 5–8 (usually 6) relatively large multi-branched elements in irregular posterior row borne distal to pecten, seta 2a-S comprised of 1 or 2 pairs (usually 2) anterolateral setae; saddle complete; seta 2-X usually double, with dorsal branch shorter; seta 3-X single, longer than seta 2-X; ventral brush (seta 4-X) with 5.5–6.5 pairs of setae on grid. PUPAE – Trumpet cylindrical, pinna about as long as meatus; setae of cephalothorax relatively short, subequal; surfaces of abdominal terga and sterna with pronounced imbrications; seta 6-I longer than seta 7-I; setae 1,2-III–VI inserted on posterior edge of respective tergum; seta 2-VII usually inserted anterolaterad of seta 1; seta 9-II–V inserted caudad of seta 7; seta 1-Pa and seta 2-Pa present. See genus Culex.
The phylogenetic relationships of Sirivanakarnius are obscure. The type species was originally placed in subgenus Culex, but it appears to be more closely related to species of subgenera Acalleomyia, Acallyntrum and Culiciomyia based on the phylogenetic analysis of morphological data in the study of St John (2007). The sole species of subgenus Sirivanakarnius was placed among species of subgenus Culex in the phylogenetic study of Harbach et al. (2012), also based on morphological data.
Immature stages are found in ground pools, rock holes and artificial containers. According to Bohart (1957), the larvae are predaceous, feeding on mosquito larvae and small aquatic organisms. Adult females will feed on humans, but are not persistent biters.
The single species of subgenus Sirivanakarnius is not of medical importance to humans.
Bohart, 1957 (Cx. boninensis as species of subgenus Culex, description, bionomics, distribution); Tanaka et al., 1979 (Cx. boninensis as species of subgenus Culex, description, bionomics, distribution); Tanaka, 2004 (subgeneric status, adult and larval stages, pupa and distribution of Cx. boninensis).
boninensis Bohart, 1957