Ficalbia minima (Theobald, 1901), original combination: Uranotaenia minima.
Subfamily Culicinae, tribe Ficalbiini. Ficalbia includes only eight species. Genus abbreviation – Fi.
Ficalbia are small mosquitoes. The adults are rather easily distinguished from the adults of other genera, except Mimomyia, by the following combination of characters: first flagellomere of antenna elongate, two to six times as long as second flagellomere in females; head with erect scales restricted to occiput; acrostichal setae and dorsocentral setae present; prespiracular setae and postspiracular setae absent; upper calypter and alula with a fringe of setae or hair-like scales; anal vein (vein 1A) ends beyond base of mediocubital crossvein; tarsi normal, pulvilli not evident. A fringe of narrow scales on the alula distinguishes Ficalbia from Mimomyia. In Mimomyia the alula is either bare or has a patch of broad, flat scales on the margin. Larvae of Ficalbia are characterised as follows: distal part of antenna fused with basal part (not articulated as in Mimomyia); hypostomal suture incomplete or absent; seta 12-I present; comb scales in a single row; siphon unmodified, with seta 1-S inserted near base (distinction from Mimomyia); pecten with at most two spines; ventral brush (seta 4-X) with four to six pairs of setae; saddle complete, with one or more minute setae on ventral midline (distinction from Mimomyia). The larvae share many characteristics with Hodgesia, which differ in having a complete hypostomal suture and exceptionally long thoracic setae. See Ficalbiini.
The phylogenetic relationships of Ficalbia are uncertain. Morphological data suggest affinities with Hodgesia and Mimomyia. Although Ficalbia and Mimomyia are the only genera of Ficalbiini, the cladistic analyses of generic relationships based on morphological data conducted by Harbach & Kitching (1998) suggest that they are not sister taxa. This is concordant with Mattingly's (1981) opinion that Ficalbia and Mimomyia are more distantly related than their inclusion in the same tribe would suggest. The phylogeny of Ficalbia has not been investigated.
Little is known about the bionomics of Ficalbia. Larvae are found in swamps, marshes, ponds, pools and river margins with abundant vegetation. Adults have been captured on lower vegetation and near the canopy in forest at night. Nothing is known about the biting habits of females.
Species of Ficalbia are apparently of no medical or economic importance.
Ficalbia includes four species in the Afrotropical Region, three in the Oriental Region (one of which extends into the Australasian Region) and one in the eastern Palaearctic (Ryukyu Archipelago).
Edwards, 1941 (Afrotropical Region, adults); Hopkins, 1952 (Afrotropical Region, larvae); Belkin, 1962 (taxonomy, including Mimomyia, South Pacific); Grjebine, 1986 (Madagascar, genus and species descriptions, bionomics, distributions); Lee et al., 1988 (Australasian Region, taxonomy, literature, distributions, bionomics); Service, 1990 (Afrotropical Region, genus and species descriptions, bionomics, distributions); Toma & Higa, 2004 (species differences); Rattanarithikkul et al., 2006 (Thailand, keys).