Mansonia Blanchard, 1901.
Subfamily Culicinae. Mansoniini includes 82 species divided between two genera, Coquillettidia (58 species) and Mansonia (25 species).
Species of tribe Mansoniini are most strikingly characterised in the larval stage and, to a lesser extent, in the pupal stage. The adults appear to be quite heterogeneous and may be easily mistaken for Culex or aedine mosquitoes. See Culicinae.
Mansoniini appears to share an affinity with tribe Aedini. It was found to be a strongly supported monophyletic group in a derived relationship to Aedini in the cladistic analyses of Harbach & Kitching (1998), and Mansonia titillans (as an outgroup taxon) was recovered as the sister of Aedini in the cladistic analyses of Reinert et al. (2004, 2006, 2009). Harbach & Kitching (1998) listed six synapomorphies that support the monophyly of Coquillettidia + Mansonia: larval seta 5-VIII close to seta 4, usually near or above level of dorsal margin of segment X; larval siphon without pecten; pupal trumpet supported by a tubercle; tracheoid area of trumpet present; pupal seta 9-VIII inserted dorsally; paddle without setae.
Females of several species are aggressive nocturnal biters. Biting activity and seasonal prevalence varies considerably with different species. The larvae and pupae of Mansoniini attach to the submerged parts of aquatic plants to obtain oxygen from pockets of air. Some species use a wide variety of plants whereas some species appear to be host specific. Pistia (water lettuce) is a common host plant for species of Mansonia, particularly those of subgenus Mansonioides. The immature stages generally occur in more or less permanent bodies of water. Larvae readily detach and reattach to host plants. Some pupae are capable of changing host plants whereas others are not. Pupae detach and float to the surface of the water prior to emergence of the adults.
Several species of the tribe have been found naturally infected with arboviruses and microfilariae, and have been shown to transmit them under experimental conditions. Some species are annoying pests and vicious biters.
Species of Mansoniini occur in the Old and New Worlds. The majority of species of the two genera are found in the Old World, mainly in tropical areas.