Coquillettidia perturbans (Walker, 1856), original combination: Culex perturbans.
Subfamily Culicinae, tribe Mansoniini. Coquillettidia is one of two genera that comprise tribe Mansoniini. The genus includes 58 species in three subgenera: Austromansonia (1 species), Coquillettidia (44 species) and Rhynchotaenia (13 species). Genus abbreviation – Cq.
Coquillettidia are generally rather large, yellowish mosquitoes that are similar to species of Mansonia and resemble some species of Culex and Aedini. The ungues (tarsal claws) are simple and the abdomen is truncate in females (distinction from Aedini), pulvilli are not evident (distinction from Culex) and the dorsal wing scales are usually narrow and unicolorous, rarely broad and mixed dark and pale but never markedly asymmetrical (distinction from Mansonia). Furthermore, species of subgenera Coquillettidia and Austromansonia are distinguished from aedine species and species of Mansonia by the absence of postspiracular setae, and Neotropical species (subgenus Rhynchotaenia) are distinct in having a conspicuous preapical white band or spot on the anterior surface of the femora. The larvae of Coquillettidia and Mansonia differ from all other mosquito larvae in having the spiracular apparatus and siphon uniquely developed for piercing and securing air from plant tissues. Larvae of Coquillettidia have the distal part of the antenna elongate (usually as long as the basal part) and articulated with the basal part. See Mansoniini.
Morphological data strongly support the sister relationship of Coquillettidia + Mansonia (Harbach & Kitching, 1998). The phylogeny of the subgenera and species has not been investigated.
The larvae of Coquillettidia attach to aquatic plants to obtain oxygen from air cells for respiration. A variety of plants are used, particularly grasses. Larvae detach and re-attach to host plants quite readily. The females of several species readily attack humans. Both nocturnal and diurnal biters are known.
Some species of Coquillettidia are notorious pests of humans and domestic animals in Africa, Europe and North America. Several species of subgenera Coquillettidia (see) and Rhynchotaenia (see) are natural vectors of a various arboviruses: most importantly, Cq. perturbans is a vector of eastern equine encephalitis virus in North America.
The single species of subgenus Austromansonia occurs in New Zealand. Species of subgenus Rhynchotaenia are confined to the Neotropical Region. Species of subgenus Coquillettidia are found mainly in the Afrotropical Region but some occur in the Oriental and Australasian Regions, one occurs in North America and two occur in the Palaearctic Region.
Lane, 1953 (subgenus Rhynchotaenia, as subgenus of Mansonia, keys, taxonomy, distributions); Belkin, 1962 (as subgenus of Mansonia, South Pacific, taxonomy], South Pacific); Cova-Garcia et al., 1966 (Venezuela, keys, taxonomy); Delfinado, 1966 (subgenus Coquillettidia, Philippines, keys, taxonomy, bionomics, distributions); Belkin, 1968 (subgenera Austromansonia and Coquillettidia, New Zealand, taxonomy, bionomics, distributions); Belkin et al., 1970 (Jamaica, Cq. nigricans, taxonomy, bionomics, distribution); Tanaka et al., 1979 (as subgenus of Mansonia, Japan, keys, taxonomy, bionomics, distributions); Lee et al., 1988 (Australasian Region, keys, taxonomy, literature, bionomics, distributions); Service, 1990 (Afrotropical Region, keys, taxonomy, literature, bionomics, distributions); Rattanarithikul et al., 2006 (Thailand, keys, bionomics).