Aedes zammitii (Theobald, 1903), original combination: Acartomyia zammitii.
Subfamily Culicinae, tribe Aedini, genus Aedes. Subgenus Acartomyia includes only three species that comprise the Mariae Complex (Coluzzi et al., 1976). Subgenus abbreviation – Acy.
The following combinations of characters distinguish species of subgenus Acartomyia from other Aedini of the Palaearctic Region. Characters that diagnose the subgenus in the phylogenetic analyses of Reinert et al. (2008, 2009), based on the type species, are indicated by an asterisk (*).
ADULTS – Vertex of head with *both broad and narrow decumbent scales; erect scales on occiput and vertex; *interocular space with ≥ 6 setae; antennal pedicel bare; maxillary palpus of females dark-scaled, with 4 palpomeres, 4th vestigial, maxillary palpus of males about as long as proboscis, apical palpomeres swollen; *proboscis with pale scales or band near mid-length; scutum with diffuse pattern of narrow golden and brown scales; scutellum with narrow curved scales on all lobes; anterior and posterior acrostichal setae and anterior and posterior dorsocentral setae present; paratergal scales and *lower proepisternal scales present; scale-patches present on *hypostigmal area, subspiracular area, postspiracular area, prealar area (upper and lower) and *postprocoxal membrane; wing with mixture of dark and pale scales, remigium without dorsal setae, *dorsal tertiary fringe scales both pale and dark, males without dorsal tertiary fringe scales on proximal 0.5 of wing; tarsi with conspicuous basal and apical pale bands (*hindtarsomere 1 and *hindtarsomere 2 with apical pale band), hindtarsomere 4 pale-scaled; ungues of female equal, both foreungues toothed, fore- and midungues of males unequal, larger foreunguis with 2 teeth, smaller foreunguis and both midungues each with 1 tooth, hindungues equal and simple in both sexes; *abdominal terga of males with numerous lateral setae. FEMALE GENITALIA – Intersegmental membrane long between segments VII and VIII; cercus without scales; *postgenital lobe with ventral width of distal 0.20 ≥ 1.0 cercus width at mid-length, *cercus/dorsal postgenital lobe index 3.24–4.78; upper vaginal sclerite absent; insula tongue-like, setae in lateral patches. MALE GENITALIA – Sternum IX with setae; gonocoxite without scales, dorsomesal apical lobe absent, dorsomesal basal lobe weakly developed, *basomesal area of dorsal surface with several stout setae, mesal surface entirely membranous; gonostylus borne at apex of gonocoxite, simple; gonostylar claw spiniform, inserted at apex of gonostylus; claspette comprised of single stem with apical claspette filament, filament nearly as long as stem, narrow, slightly curved and flattened; aedeagus tube-like. LARVAE – Antenna shorter than head, with numerous spicules; setae 5,6-C single, seta 4-C inserted posterior to seta 6-C; *seta 6-C inserted anterior to seta 7-C ; seta 19-C present; *seta 1-M ≥ 3.5 length of seta 2-M; seta 12-I present; comb with 15-45 *scales in 2 or 3 irregular rows; siphon short, siphon index ≤ 2.0; pecten spines closely and evenly spaced, long, simple or with proximal denticles; seta 1-S long, ≥ 0.67 width of siphon at point of insertion, inserted distal to pecten; saddle weakly developed (small dorsal sclerite); seta 2-X short, fan-like, multi-branched (> 10 branches); ventral brush (seta 4-X) usually with 4–6 precratal setae, sometimes more, 11–13 cratal setae on grid with lateral and transverse bars; anal papillae very short, spherical. PUPAE – Trumpet with weakly developed tracheoid area; seta 2-II inserted lateral to seta 1-II; *seta 3-I as long or longer than seta 6-I, *seta 3-II inserted lateral to seta 2-II; *seta 5-II longer than seta 3-II; seta 9-VIII inserted on posterolateral corner of segment; paddle without fringe of hair-like spicules; seta 1-Pa single (rarely 2-branched); seta 2-Pa absent. See Aedes.
The phylogenetic affinities of subgenus Acartomyia are uncertain. In the comprehensive phylogenetic study of Reinert et al. (2009) based on extensive morphological data, Acartomyia was recovered as the basal member of a clade comprised of subgenus Acartomyia + (subgenus Jarnellius + (subgenus Halaedes + genus Opifex)), and this clade was sister to subgenus Ochlerotatus. It was recovered as sister to subgenus Halaedes + genus Opifex in the phylogenetic analysis of Wilkerson et al. (2015) and as a monophyletic group in a sister relationship to species of Ochlerotatus in the molecular phylogeny of Soghigian et al. (2017).
The immature stages of species of subgenus Acartomyia are found in coastal rock pools containing sea water. Adult females of Ae. mariae are known to feed on birds and annoy humans in coastal areas. Little else in known about the bionomics of the species.
Species of subgenus Acartomyia are not known to be of medical or economic importance to humans. Aedes mariae is a vector of Plasmodium relictum, the causal agent of bird malaria.
Coastal areas of the Mediterranean Region.
Coluzzi & Sabatini, 1968 (as Aedes mariae complex, systematics); Reinert et al., 2008 (as subgenus of Ochlerotatus, morphology, phylogeny); Reinert et al., 2009 (as genus, morphology, phylogeny); Becker et al., 2010 (as Ochlerotatus mariae complex, keys, taxonomy, distributions of Ae. mariae and Ae. zammitii); Wilkerson et al., 2015 (phylogeny, classification); Soghigian et al., 2017 (phylogenetic relationships).