Aedes ramirezi Vargas & Downs, 1950.
Subfamily Culicinae, tribe Aedini, genus Aedes. Subgenus Aztecaedes is monobasic. Subgenus abbreviation – Azt.
Subgenus Aztecaedes is distinguished from all other New World generic-level taxa of tribe Aedini by the following distinctive features. The combination of 12 homoplastic characters that diagnose the Aztecaedes clade in the phylogeny of Aedini recovered in the study of Reinert et al. (2009) are preceded by an asterisk (*). ADULTS – Vertex of head with numerous erect scales and few to numerous moderately broad decumbent scales; antennal pedicel with large patch of scales on mesal surface; maxillary palpus and proboscis entirely dark-scaled; maxillary palpus of males with long palpomere 3, ratio of length to length of proboscis >0.21; scutum with broad decumbent pale scales in narrow acrostichal line continued as *median prescutellar line to scutellum, in narrow posterior outer dorsocentral line from prescutal suture to scutellum and in narrow marginal line from anterior promontory to parascutellum; *no pale scales on margins of prescutellar area; scutal fossal setae absent; *antealar area anterior to forward edge of paratergite without scales; paratergite bare; *midlobe of scutellum with median patch of broad pale scales bordered by dark falcate scales; upper area of pleuron with 2 nearly horizontal lines of pale scales; postpronotum with dark falcate scales along upper margin and lower line of pale spatulate scales; hypostigial scales absent; tibiae and tarsi of all legs entirely dark-scaled. FEMALE GENITALIA – *Tergum VIII and *sternum VIII with straight posterior margins; *setae borne on distal and much of median area of tergum IX; upper vaginal sclerite absent. MALE GENITALIA – Sternomesal surface of gonocoxite with numerous long strong setae, base of tergomesal surface without single differentiated seta or setal tuft; claspette with a pair of strongly developed setae on dorsoapical area of claspette stem; aedeagus with a median constriction. LARVAE – Head with very large ocular lobes; antenna without spicules; seta 5-C, *seta 7-C and seta 5-P single; *seta 7-C inserted posterior to seta 5-C; *seta 5-P longer than seta 6-P; seta 14-M, seta 13-T and seta 13-I with few strongly developed branches; seta 12-I absent; *seta 1-II single or double; siphon very short; *seta 1-S shorter than diameter of siphon; pecten short, conspicuously curved dorsad distally or oblique, pecten spines with numerous basal denticles or serrations; saddle incomplete ventrally; seta 1-X strongly developed, single; ventral brush (seta 4-X) borne on a boss, usually comprised of 8 pairs of setae, seta 4a-X (the posteriormost seta) very short relative to seta 4c-X; anal papillae very large, inflated and tapered. PUPAE – Terga II–VI or VII with strong irregular transverse ridge slightly caudad of seta 0; seta 3-I single, seta 3-II inserted posteromesal to seta 2-II and longer than seta 6-II; seta 6-I shorter than seta 7-I; paddle broad, midrib restricted to approximately basal 0.6. See Aedes.
Zavortink (1972) stated that "Aztecaedes shows no definite relationship to any other New World group" of aedine mosquitoes. The morphology-based phylogenies of Reinert et al. (2008, 2009) support this observation. Aztecaedes was recovered in a basal relationship to subgenera Gymnometopa and Kompia in a clade comprised of subgenera Lewnielsenius + (Abraedes + (Aztecaedes + (Gymnometopa + Kompia)) in the study of Reinert et al. (2008) and a clade of similar topology and relationships was recovered in the more comprehensive study of Reinert et al. (2009): subgenera Howardina + (Gymnometopa + (Kompia + (Aztecaedes + (Abraedes + Lewnielsenius)))). Subgenus Aztecaedes is clearly distinct and not definitely related to other aedine generic-level taxa (see also Wilkerson et al., 2015).
The immature stages of Ae. ramirezi have been found in holes in volcanic rock and in a rot hole of a tree. A female was captured landing-biting a human during mid-afternoon.
The only known species of subgenus Aztecaedes is of no medical or economic importance to humans.
The type species of subgenus Aztecaedes is only known from elevations between 1600 and 1900 m in Jalisco and Morelos States of Mexico.