Aedes atropalpus (Coquillett, 1902), ), original combination: Culex atropalpus.
Subfamily Culicinae, tribe Aedini, genus Aedes. Subgenus Georgecraigius includes three species placed in one or the other of two species groups. Subgenus abbreviation – Grg.
Characters that diagnose subgenus Georgecraigius (as genus) in the phylogeny of Reinert et al. (2009) are indicated by an asterisk (*). ADULTS – *Vertex with both narrow central and broad lateral scales, with numerous erect forked scales mainly or entirely on occiput; ocular line with narrow pale scales; *eyes separated above antennal pedicels; antennal pedicel with few scales and setae on mesal surface, flagellar whorls of males with setae directed dorsally and ventrally; clypeus bare; maxillary palpus and proboscis dark-scaled, palpus of males with 5 palpomeres, shorter than proboscis, *palpomeres 4 and 5 nearly straight relative to palpomere 3; anterior and posterior acrostichal setae present; anterior dorsocentral setae absent, posterior dorsocentral setae present; supraalar area with longitudinal patch of pale scales; prescutellar area with pale scales on lateral margins of bare space; scutellum with narrow scales on all lobes; scales present on antepronotum and postpronotum, broad scales on subspiracular, upper proepisternal, upper and lower mesokatepisternal, lower prealar and upper mesepimeral areas; lower mesepimeral setae absent; metameron bare; wing dark-scaled with pale patch at base of costa; upper calypter with several setae; alula with narrow scales on margin; *remigial setae absent; hindfemur with pale scales at apex; hindtarsomeres 1 and 2 with narrow pale basal band, both fore- and midungues of females with 1 tooth, hindungues simple in both sexes, fore- and midungues of males unequal, larger unguis with 2 teeth, smaller with 1 tooth. FEMALE GENITALIA – Tergum VIII and *sternum VIII broadly rounded posteriorly, numerous scales on much of surface, sternum VIII slightly wider than long; seta 2-S inserted posterior to seta 1-S; *tergum IX comprised of 2 oval sclerites, *width/length ratio ≥ 2.0, without setae; postgenital lobe truncated or with shallow median emargination, *ratio of ventral width at distal 0.20 to cercus width at mid-length ≥0.66, *ventral index 0.47–1.64; upper vaginal sclerite small; lower vaginal sclerite absent; insula lip-like, with few setae in lateral patches; cercus with broadly rounded apex, without scales; 3 spermathecal capsules. MALE GENITALIA – Tergum IX lobes narrowly connected, without setae; sternum IX with setae; gonocoxite with apicodorsal lobe, with setose basodorsal lobe; gonostylus attached apically, long, with single, short gonostylar claw at apex; claspette comprised of narrow columnar stem with long somewhat flattened and slightly curved apical claspette filament; aedeagus simple, tube-like, distal half slightly wider, apex convex; cercal setae present. LARVAE – Antenna with few to several spicules; *seta 1-C single, thin, distally attenuate; seta 4-C short, branched, inserted mesal and slightly posterior to seta 6-C; seta 5-C stout, inserted posterior to seta 6-C; seta 6-C stout; seta 7-C stout, branched, inserted about same level or slightly posterior to seta 5-C; seta 12-C branched, shorter than and inserted mesal to seta 13-C; seta 13-C single; seta 14-C short, single; seta 19-C absent; seta 4-P single; seta 5-M longer than seta 7-M; setae 2,6-T single; seta 12-I present; 6-I–III long, aciculate, branched; seta 7-I long, stout, aciculate; setae 7,10,12-VII single; *seta 1-VIII single; seta 2-VIII longer than seta 1-VIII, setae 2,4-VIII single; comb comprised of numerous scales in patch; siphon with attached acus; pecten with numerous spines, evenly spaced or distal 1 or 2 spines more widely spaced; seta 1-S moderately long, aciculate, multiple-branched; saddle relatively small, incomplete ventrally, acus absent; seta 1-X single, inserted ventral to saddle (occasionally on margin of saddle in Ae. fluviatilis); ventral brush (seta 4-X) on grid with transverse and lateral bars, precratal setae absent. PUPAE – Seta 11-CT single, longer than setae 10,12-CT; seta 3-I stout, single (rarely 2-branched on 1 side of Ae. atropalpus), noticeably longer than seta 6-I; *seta 6-I,II shorter than seta 7-I,II respectively; seta 1-II multiple-branched; seta 2-II short, inserted lateral to setae 1,3-II; seta 3-III single, long, stout, inserted on level with seta 1-III; seta 5-III inserted mesal to seta 4-III; seta 6-VII short, slender, single or double, inserted mesal and posterior to seta 9-VII; seta 9-VII stout, branched, longer than seta 6-VII; seta 9-VIII stout, multiple-branched; paddle wide; without hair-like spicules on lateral margin; midrib distinct to apex; seta 1-Pa single. See Aedes.
In the phylogeny of Reinert et al. (2009) based on extensive morphological data, subgenus Georgecraigius was included in a clade in which subgenera Rampamyia + (Molpemyia + (Luius + Macleaya)) were sister to a clade that was divided into two clades comprised of subgenera Dobrotworskyius + (Patmarksia + Georgecraigius) and subgenera Tanakaius + (Hulecoeteomyia + (Gilesius + Collessius)). In the phylogeny recovered in the study of Wilkerson et al. (20115), Georgecraigius was the sister of Patmarksia in a polytomy that also included subgenera Collessius, Gilesius, Hulecoeteomyia and Tanakaius in an unresolved clade, and Dobrotworskyius. Georgecraigius was recovered as sister to Gymnometopa in the maximum likelihood phylogeny of Soghigian et al. (2017) based on seven molecular markers. There was no evidence of a relationship between Georgecraigius and the genera associated with it in the phylogenies of Reinert et al. and Wilkerson et alia.
The immature stages of species of subgenus Georgecraigius are usually found in rock holes and rock pools, but they are also found in artificial containers and occasionally in tree holes, ground pools, stream pools and axils of Agave leaves. Other than the type species, little is known about the bionomics of the adults.
Laboratory studies have shown that Ae. atropalpus is capable of transmitting La Crosse, West Nile and other encephalitic viruses (Freier & Beier, 1984; Turell et al., 2001), but its importance as a vector of pathogens of humans diseases is unknown.
Argentina (Misiones), Bolivia (Cochabamba), Brazil (Bahia, Goias, Minas Gerais, Para, Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Sergipe), Canada (Labrador, Newfoundland, Ontario, Quebec), Columbia (Boyaca, Cundinamarca, Meta), Costa Rica (Alajuela, Cartago, Guanacaste, San Jose), Ecuador (Zamora), El Salvador, French Guiana (Guyane, Inini), Guatemala (Guatemala), Guyana (Essequibo), Honduras (Colon), Mexico (Baja California Sur, Chiapas, Guerrero, Morelos, Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Veracruz), Nicaragua (Zelaya), Panama (Canal Zone, Chiriqui, Cocle, Colon, Darien, Panama), Surinam (Suriname), United States (Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Georgia, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia, Wisconsin) and Venezuela (Aragua, Distrito Federal, Territorio Amazonas). The invasive Gc. atropalpus was introduced into Italy, France and the Netherlands, but did not survive (see Georgecraigius Group).