Aedes tremulus (Theobald, 1903), original combination: Macleaya tremula.
Subfamily Culicinae, tribe Aedini, genus Aedes. Subgenus Macleaya includes 11 species divided between two species groups, the Chaetocruiomyia and Macleaya Groups. Subgenus abbreviation – Mac.
Species of subgenus Macleaya are characterised and distinguished from species of other generic-level taxa of Aedini by the following combinations of characters. Characters that diagnose Macleaya in the phylogenetic analyses of Reinert et al. (2009), based on features observed in Ae. wattensis (Chaetocruiomyia Group) and Ae. tremulus (Macleaya Group), are indicated by an asterisk (*).
ADULTS – Small thick-set mosquitoes with strong scutal setae; vertex with *broad decumbent scales; proboscis short; maxillary palpus of males about as long as proboscis; *antepronotal scales all narrow; subspiracular scales present; lower mesepimeral setae absent; legs mainly dark-scaled; hindtibia with strong setae; tarsi with pale bands, hindtarsomere V usually all white; all ungues of females equal and simple (*foreungues simple), fore- and midungues of males unequal, larger anterior *fore- and *midunguis with strong tooth, hindungues equal and simple; abdominal segments VII and VIII of females large, laterally compressed. FEMALE GENITALIA – Sternum VIII large, *posterior margin with median emargination separating broadly rounded lateral lobes; insula lip-like; cerci very short, sometimes hidden. MALE GENITALIA – *Gonostylus broader in middle than proximally, *without distal setae, with terminal gonostylar claw, *≥ 0.39 length of gonostylus; phallosome simple. LARVAE – Antenna without spicules; *ventromedian cervical sclerite absent; setae 4–7-C inserted anterior to base of antenna; *seta 5-P branched; *seta 1-M ≥ 3.5 length of seta 2-M; *seta 4-M single; *seta 7-M as long or longer than seta 5-M; *seta 3-II branched; *seta 5-II single; *seta 3-V ≤ 1.55 length of seta 5-V; *seta 1-VIII ≥ 1.10 length of seta 2-VIII; seta 1-S inserted beyond pecten, *single; saddle incomplete. PUPAE – *Seta 5-II inserted mesal to seta 4-II; *seta 5-II longer than seta 3-II; *seta 6-II no longer than seta 7-I; *seta 2-V inserted anterior to seta 3-V; *seta 9-VIII inserted slightly anterior to posterolateral corner of segment; seta 1-Pa single. See Aedes.
The phylogenetic relationships of Macleaya are uncertain. The subgenus was recovered as the sister of subgenus Luius in a clade comprised of subgenera Rampamyia + (Molpemyia + (Luius + Macleaya)) in the phylogeny of Reinert et al. (2009) based on morphological data. Macleaya was also recovered as the sister to Luius in the study of Wilkerson et al. (2015). In the absence of the sole species of subgenus Luius, it was recovered in a sister relationship with 17 species of subgenus Ochlerotatus in the maximum likelihood phylogeny of Soghigian et al. (2017) based on seven molecular markers.
The immature stages develop in tree holes and hollow stumps; those of Ae. tremulus have been found in artificial containers. Adult females of most species are known to attack and bite humans and domestic animals during daylight hours, but some are known to bite in the evening and early morning hours, or during the night. Two species, Ae. moloiensis and Ae. wattensis, sometimes bite indoors.
Species of subgenus Macleaya are not of medical and economic importance to humans.
Species of subgenus Macleaya occur in the Australasian Region, principally Australia.
Marks, 1963 (Aedes subgenus Chaetocruiomyia, revision); Dobrotworsky, 1965 (Aedes subgenera Chaetocruiomyia and Macleaya, taxonomy); Lee et al., 1982 (Aedes subgenus Chaetocruiomyia, keys, taxonomy, distributions, bionomics); Lee et al., 1984 (Aedes subgenus Macleaya, keys, taxonomy, distributions, bionomics); Reinert, 2002 (Aedes subgenera Chaetocruiomyia and Macleaya, female genitalia); Reinert et al., 2006, 2008, 2009 (as genus, morphology, phylogeny); Wilkerson et al., 2015 (phylogeny, classification); Soghigian et al., 2017 (phylogenetic relationships).