Aedes longirostris (Leicester, 1908), original combination: Ficalbia longirostris.
Subfamily Culicinae, tribe Aedini, genus Aedes. Subgenus Rhinoskusea includes only four species. Subgenus abbreviation – Rhi.
Subgenus Rhinoskusea is characterised and separated from the other generic-level taxa of Aedini by the following combinations of characters. Characters that diagnose Rhinoskusea (as genus) in the phylogeny of Aedini recovered in the study of Reinert et al. (2009) are indicated by an asterisk (*).
ADULTS – Small unornamented mosquitoes; vertex with broad decumbent scales, few *erect scales restricted to occiput; eyes contiguous above antennal pedicels; maxillary palpus of males short as in females; *scutum with both narrow and broad scales, latter on anterior promontory, *scales sparse on scutal fossa, *scales present on prescutellar area; acrostichal setae (anterior and posterior) and dorsocentral setae (anterior and posterior) numerous; scutellum with broad scales on all lobes; paratergal scales, antepronotal scales and *postpronotal scales absent; thoracic pleura without scales except for a small patch on lower area of mesepisternum; lower mesepimeral setae absent; *upper calypter of males with 0–3 setae, *dorsal tertiary fringe scales absent on proximal half of wing in females; legs dark-scaled, hindtarsomere 1 slightly longer than hindtibia, all ungues of females small, simple, anterior fore- and midungues of males larger, with or without tooth (*larger midungues with one tooth, smaller simple). FEMALE GENITALIA – Postgenital lobe short and broad, *ventral index 0.47–1.64; *upper vaginal sclerite absent; insula lip-like with 3–5 long setae; only one spermathecal capsule, *accessory spermathecal capsules absent. MALE GENITALIA – Tergum IX lobes with or *without setae; *mesal surface of gonocoxite partly sclerotized, *dorsomesal apical lobe present, *median part and *distal part of gonostylus much broader than proximal part, gonostylar claw short, striated, scoop-like; *claspette comprised of 2 basal lobes, columnar lobe absent, long distal portion free of gonocoxite, without an apical filament; aedeagus simple, trough-like, wide, *widest in distal third. LARVAE – Lateral palatal brushes without pectinate elements; antenna with *setae 2,3-A inserted noticeably subapical; *seta 6-C branched; *2 or 3 of setae 1–3-P on common setal support plate; *seta 4-P single; *seta 6-II shorter than seta 6-III; *seta 8-II single; *seta 1-VII 0.48–0.85 length of segment X; seta 1-S long (*≥ 2.17 width of siphon), multi-branched, inserted far distad on siphon; comb comprised of numerous scales in a triangular patch, seta 1-X long, single, inserted on saddle; ventral brush (seta 4-X) with 10 multi-branched setae *on grid with transverse bars; anal papillae small, knob-like. PUPAE – *Trumpet with tracheoid well develop, distal to base; seta 11-CT long, stout, *branched (double); intersegmental membranes and membrane around base of seta 1-I with small dark granules; *seta 6-I shorter than seta 7-I; *seta 2-II as long as or longer than seta 1-II; *seta 3-II longer than seta 6-II, *thinner than seta 1-II, *seta 3-III branched; *seta 5-II inserted mesal to seta 4-II, seta 5-III–VI long, 2–6-branched, *seta 5-V shorter thantergum VI; seta 4-VII much longer than seta 5-VII; seta 9-VIII multi-branched with secondary branches on distal half; seta 1-Pa with 3–5 branches. See Aedes.
Mattingly (1958) stated that Rhinoskusea is “clearly related” to subgenera Cancraedes and Paraedes and “shows some interesting resemblance to Geoskusea” in basal structures of the male genitalia. Based on the phylogenetic study of Reinert et al. (2009), the subgenus appears to be more closely related to Geoskusea and subgenus Levua. The subgenus was recovered as the sister of Levua in a clade parenthetically expressed as subgenera Sallumia + (Geoskusea + (Levua + Rhinoskusea)). In the phylogeny of Wilkerson et al. (2015), Rhinoskusea formed a polytomy along with subgenera Geoskusea, Levua and Sallumia, and this group was sister to subgenus Cancraedes. In contrast to the findings of Reinert et al. and Wilkerson et al. based on analyses of morphological data, two species of Rhinoskusea were recovered in a sister relationship with two species of Collessius in the maximum likelihood phylogeny of Soghigian et al. (2017) based on seven molecular markers
Species of subgenus Rhinoskusea are confined to brackish water coastal and river areas. The immature stages usually inhabit crab holes and small ground pools associated with mangrove, but they are sometimes found in other small collections of water, natural and constructed containers, and rock pools. Adults have been collected in light traps, human- and animal-baited traps, and resting in crab holes. Females are known to feed on humans.
Species of subgenus Rhinoskusea are not known to be of medical importance to humans.
Rhinoskusea species occur in many areas of the Oriental Region, Papua New Guinea and the northern tip of Australia.
Mattingly, 1958 (in part, taxonomy); Reinert, 1976 (taxonomy); Reinert, 2002 (as subgenus of Ochlerotatus, female genitalia); Reinert et al., 2004, 2006 (as genus, morphology, phylogeny); Reinert et al., 2008 (as subgenus of Ochlerotatus, phylogenetic relationships); Reinert et al., 2009 (as genus, morphology, phylogeny); Rattanarithikul et al., 2010 (as genus, Thailand, keys, bionomics); Wilkerson et al., 2015 (phylogeny, classification); Soghigian et al., 2017 (phylogenetic relationships).