Subgenus Armigeres Theobald, 1901

Type species: 

Armigeres obturbans (Walker, 1859), original combination: Culex obturbans.

Classification: 

Subfamily Culicinae, genus Armigeres. Subgenus Armigeres includes 40 species. Subgenus abbreviation – Arm.

Characteristics: 

ADULTS – The adults of subgenus Armigeres are easily distinguished from those of subgenus Leicesteria by the presence of postspiracular setae and a lower mesepimeral seta. Other distinctions include the following: clypeus bare or with lateral white scales; maxillary palpus of females less than 0.33 length of proboscis; scutum normal, not compressed nor produced over the head; postpronotum with pale scales posteriorly (no black scales); thoracic pleura with patches of white scales; hindtibia longer or equal in length to fore- and midtibia. MALE GENITALIA – Gonostylus scythe-shaped with close-set claws along inner margin of apical half (except in Ar. treubi, which has a single[/noo-glossary] claw on a bulbous gonostylus, and in Ar. theobaldi, which has 12 claws at the apex as in species of subgenus Leicesteria). LARVAE ‒ Although Armigeres larvae are easily distinguished from those of other genera, no single character reliably distinguishes the larvae of subgenera Armigeres and Leicesteria. Rattanarithikul et al. (2010) used the form of comb scales to distinguish larvae of the two subgenera in Thailand: comb scales rather elongate, rounded or pointed and evenly fringed at sides and apex in species of subgenus Armigeres (ca subgenus. Leicesteria). PUPAE ‒ Pupae of subgenus Armigeres usually have seta 6-CT as long as or longer than seta 7-CT; seta 3-CT and usually seta 1-CT are long and very stout; seta 1-Pa is usually present and at least 0.3 length of the paddle. See genus Armigeres

Phylogenetic relationships: 

The phylogenetic studies of Reinert et al. (2004, 2009) based on cladistics analyses of morphological data strongly support the sister relationship of subgenus Armigeres with subgenus Leicesteria. Five species of the subgenus (Ar. durhami, Ar. kesseli, Ar. malayi, Ar. obturbans and Ar. subalbatus) were recovered in a derived position relative to Ar. flavus of subgenus Leicesteria in the maximum likelihood phylogeny of Soghigian et al. (2017) based on seven molecular markers.

Bionomics and disease relations: 

Females of subgenus Armigeres lay their eggs singly (Macdonald & Traub, 1960; Steffan, 1968). The eggs resist drying to some extent. The larvae generally breed in containers (tree holes, log holes, bamboo stumps, sago palm and banana stumps, flower bracts, fallen coconut, cacao and other fruit shells, Nepenthes pitchers, artificial containers) and in small collections of surface water (e.g. ground pools, rock pools, drains and septic tanks). The water is generally either very foul or has a high organic content. Larvae of subgenus Armigeres are in some cases carnivorous. Adults are usually active in the daytime in heavily shaded areas. Females of a number of species readily attack and viciously bite humans. 

Females of Ar. subalbatus are suspected of transmitting Wuchereria bancrofti. Mackerras (1946) investigated the vector potential of Ar. breinli and Ar. milnensis for transmitting dengue fever virus. Results were negative for these two species; however, sufficient data were not obtained for Ar. milnensis nor possibly for Ar. breinli to exonerate them conclusively as vectors of this virus. They should be considered potential vectors of this and other arboviruses.

Distribution: 

Species of subgenus Armigeres occur in the Oriental, Palaearctic and Australasian Regions. The subgenus is represented in the Palaearctic Region (China, Korea and Japan) by Ar. subalbatus. 

Principal references: 

Barraud, 1934 (southern Asia); Thurman, 1959 (Thailand); Delfinado, 1966 (Philippines); Steffan, 1968 (Papuan Subregion of Australasian Region); Tanaka et al., 1979 (Japan); Lee et al., 1988 (Australasian Region); Darsie & Pradhan, 1990 (Nepal); Lu Baolin et al. 1997 (China); Darsie, 2000 (pupae); Reinert et al., 2004, 2009 (phylogeny); Rattanarithikul et al., 2010 (Thailand, keys, bionomics); Soghigian et al., 2017 (phylogenetic relationships).

Species: 
alkatirii Toma, Miyagi & Syafruddin, 1995
apoensis Bohart & Farner, 1944
aureolineatus (Leicester, 1908)
azurini Basio, 1971
baisasi Stone & Thurman, 1958
bhayungi Thurman & Thurman, 1958
breinli (Taylor,1914)
candelabrifer Brug, 1939
confusus Edwards, 1915
conjungens Edwards, 1914
denbesteni Brug, 1925
durhami Edwards, 1917
ejercitoi Baisas, 1935
fimbriatus Edwards, 1930
foliatus Brug, 1931
giveni Edwards, 1926
hybridus Edwards, 1914
joloensis (Ludlow,1904)
jugraensis (Leicester, 1908)
kesseli Ramalingam,1987
kinabaluensis Ramalingam, 1972
kuchingensis Edwards, 1915
lacuum Edwards, 1922
laoensis Toma & Miyagi, 2003
mahantai Bhattacharyya,Prakash, Mohapatra & Sarma, 2009
maiae Edwards, 1917
malayi (Theobald, 1901)
manalangi Baisas, 1935
maximus Edwards, 1922
milnensis Lee, 1944
moultoni Edwards, 1914
obturbans (Walker,1859)
pallithorax Dong, Zhou & Dong, 2004
papuensis Peters, 1963
sembeli Toma & Miyagi, 2002
setifer Delfinado, 1966
seticoxitus Luh & Li, 1981
subalbatus (Coquillett, 1898)
   subspecies chrysocorporis Hsieh & Liao, 1956
   subspecies subalbatus (Coquillett, 1898)
theobaldi Barraud, 1934
yunnanensis Dong, Zhou & Dong, 1995 
Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith