Subgenus Culiciomyia Theobald, 1907

Type species: 

Culiciomyia inornata Theobald, 1907 [subjective synonym of Culex fragilis Ludlow, 1903].

Classification: 

Subfamily Culicinae, genus Culex. Subgenus Culiciomyia includes 54 species. See Culex classification, Subgenus Culiciomyia). Subgenus abbreviation – Cui.

Characteristics: 

ADULTS – Small to rather large dark-coloured mosquitoes; head with 1 or 2 rows of broad decumbent scales on ocular line, decumbent scales narrow in center of vertex; eyes contiguous above antennae; frontal tuft not developed; antenna longer than proboscis in females, usually slightly shorter than proboscis in males, pedicel without conspicuous scales; proboscis, maxillary palpus and tarsi dark-scaled; several long ventral setae near middle of proboscis in males; palpus with 3 palpomeres in females; palpus longer than proboscis in males, with 5 palpomeres, distal half of palpomere 3 usually with ventral row of outstanding lanceolate scales (absent in Cx. dispectus and Cx. hainanensis), palpomeres 4 and 5 upturned and setose ventrally, palpomere 4 usually noticeably shorter than palpomere 5; acrostichal setae usually absent, present in some species, sometimes rarely weakly developed near prescutellar space; scutal scaling very dense with smooth appearance; antepronotum with or without scales; postpronotum with narrow scales; thoracic pleura without scale-patches; 1 or 2 lower mesepimeral setae present; wing usually entirely dark-scaled, sometimes with pale scales on remigium; abdominal terga with or without basal or apical pale bands. MALE GENITALIA – Ninth tergal lobes weakly developed; gonocoxite without scales; subapical lobe strongly developed; setae a-c strongly developed, spiniform, seta a usually removed sternad from setae b and c, setae d-f varied, seta g usually more or less foliform, seta h usually developed, sometimes numerous additional specialised tergal setae present; sometimes with setose apicosternal accessory lobe developed from subapical lobe; gonostylus varied in shape, distal portion recurved, usually with distinct outer crest of strong spicules; phallosome simple, lateral plate with strong apical spine and usually a series of short denticles on lateral margin; dorsal and ventral aedeagal bridges distinct; paraproct with large cluster of numerous fine spicules dorsomesally and heavy curved spine-like spicules in a single ventrolateral row, basal sternal process usually long, slender and curved; cercal setae varied. LARVAE – Antenna at least half length of head; seta 1-A near mid-length or beyond; setae 2,3-A slightly removed from apex; seta 1-C slender, filamentous or robust and gradually tapered; seta 2-C usually present; setae 4–7-C inserted on anterior half of cranium; seta 12-C inserted mesad of seta 13-C; seta 15-C usually with at least 4 branches, inserted on anterior half of labiogula; seta 1-P single or bifid; seta 2-P single; seta 3-P single or branched, about half length of setae 1,2-P; seta 7-II only slightly larger than seta 7-III; seta 1-IV,V strongly developed; comb comprised of numerous fringed scales in patch; siphon variable in length and shape, with 3–6 pairs of posterolateral setae inserted in a line distad of pecten (pecten absent in Cx. dispectus and Cx. hainanensis); saddle complete; seta 1-X large, single or double; setae 2,3-X usually single; ventral brush (seta 4-X) comprised of 3.5–6 pairs of setae on grid. PUPAE Very similar to pupae of subgenus Culex; trumpet moderately long and slender, pinna short, tracheoid area varied; cephalothoracic setae well developed; abdominal setae moderately to strongly developed; seta 5-II inserted anterior or posterior to seta 4-II; seta 6-VII well developed, conspicuous; seta 1-IX present or absent; paddle normal, marginal spicules inconspicuous or absent; seta 1-Pa and seta 2-Pa present. See genus Culex.

Phylogenetic relationships: 

The affinities of Culiciomyia are not clear. They share similarities with species of Acallyntrum and Lophoceraomyia. Females of Culiciomyia and Lophoceraomyia are very difficult to distinguish. Belkin (1962) and Bram (1968) suggested a relationship between Culiciomyia, Acalleomyia and Acallyntrum based on similarities observed in larvae, and surmised that Culiciomyia is the more primitive group.

Bionomics and disease relations: 

The immature stages occupy a wide range of habitats, including ground pools, swamps, running streams, tree holes, crab holes, leaf axils of plants and artificial containers, but they appear to prefer temporary accumulations of water with a high organic content. Virtually nothing is known about the bionomics of the adults. Females are not known to attack humans.

Although two species, Cx. pallidothorax and Cx. spathifurca , have been experimentally infected with Wuchereria bancrofti, Culiciomyia species are unlikely to vector pathogens of human diseases in nature.

Distribution: 

Species of Culiciomyia are recorded from tropical areas of the Afrotropical, Oriental and Australasian Regions. A few species extend into the eastern Palaearctic Region (China, Japan and Korea).

Principal references: 

Belkin, 1962 (South Pacific, keys, taxonomy, bionomics, distributions); Bram, 1967 (Thailand, keys, taxonomy, bionomics, distributions); Harrison, 1987 (historical review, morphology); Lee et al., 1989 (Australasian Region, keys, literature, distributions, bionomics).

Species: 
azurini Toma, Miyagi & Cabrera, 1984
bahri (Edwards, 1914)
bailyi Barraud, 1934
barrinus Bram, 1967
cambournaci Hamon & Gandara, 1955
ceramensis Sirivanakarn & Kurihara, 1973
cheni Kong, Wang & Lu, 2003 (in Dong et al., 2003)
cinerellus Edwards, 1922
cinereus Theobald, 1901
delfinadoae Sirivanakarn, 1973
dispectus Bram, 1966
eouzani Geoffroy, 1971
fragilis Ludlow, 1903
furlongi van Someren, 1954
fuscicinctus King & Hoogstraal, 1946
gilliesi Hamon & van Someren, 1961
grenieri Eouzan, 1969
hainanensis Chen, 1977
harleyi Peters, 1955
harrisoni Sirivanakarn, 1977
javanensis Bonne-Wepster, 1934
kyotoensis Yamaguti & LaCasse, 1952
lampangensis Sirivanakarn, 1973
liberiensis Peters, 1955
macfiei Edwards, 1923
maplei Knight & Hurlbut, 1949
megaonychus Yang, Li & Chen, 1993
milloti Doucet, 1949
mongiro van Someren, 1951
muspratti Hamon & Lambrecht, 1959
nailoni King & Hoogstraal, 1946
nebulosus Theobald, 1901
   subspecies nebulosus Theobald, 1901
   subspecies pseudocinereus Theobald, 1901
nigropunctatus Edwards, 1926
pallidothorax Theobald, 1905
pandani Brunhes, 1969
papuensis (Taylor, 1914)
pullus Theobald, 1905
rajah Tsukamoto, 1989
ramakrishnii Wattal & Kalra, 1965
ramalingami Sirivanakarn, 1973
ruthae Peters, 1958
ryukyensis Bohart, 1946
sasai Kano, Nitahara & Awaya, 1954
scanloni Bram, 1967
semibrunneus Edwards, 1927
shebbearei Barraud, 1924
spathifurca (Edwards, 1915)
spiculostylus Chen, 1989
subaequalis Edwards, 1941
termi Thurman, 1955
thurmanorum Bram, 1967
tricuspis Edwards, 1930
viridiventer Giles, 1901
yaoi Tung, 1955
Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith