Subgenus Leicesteria Theobald, 1904

Type species: 

Armigeres longipalpis (Leicester, 1904 [in Theobald, 1904], original combination: Leicesteria longipalpis.


Subfamily Culicinae, genus Armigeres. Subgenus Leicesteria includes 18 species. Subgenus abbreviation – Lei.


ADULTS – The adults of subgenus Leicesteria are easily distinguished from those of the nominate subgenus by the absence of postspiracular setae and lower mesepimeral setae (except Ar. flavus, see below). Other distinctions include: maxillary palpus of females 0.50‒0.75 length of proboscis; scutum more or less produced over the head and in some species narrow and laterally compressed; hindtibia longer than foretibia and equal in length to midtibia. Armigeres flavus is peculiar in having a few scales and minute seta on the mesopostnotum, one or two lower mesepimeral setae and an unusually short hindtibia. MALE GENITALIA – Gonocoxite with small basal lobe on inner side bearing spines or processes; gonostylus with apical claws (except Ar. cingulatus). LARVAE ‒ Although larvae of Armigeres are easily distinguished from those of other genera, no single character reliably distinguishes the larvae of subgenera Armigeres and Leicesteria. Rattanarithikul et al. (2010) used the form of comb scales to distinguish larvae of the two subgenera in Thailand: comb scales relatively short, with strong denticles and frequently with stout median spine (ca. subgenus Armigeres). PUPAE ‒ Pupae of subgenus Leicesteria have seta 7-CT at least 1.6 times as long as seta 6-CT; setae 1‒3-CT are usually slender; seta 1-Pa is usually absent, if present it is no longer than the paddle. See genus Armigeres

Phylogenetic relationships: 

The phylogenetic studies of Reinert et al. (2004, 2009) based on cladistics analyses of morphological data strongly supports the sister relationship of subgenus Leicesteria with subgenus Armigeres. The evolutionary relationships of the species of the subgenus have not been investigated. However, Ar. flavus was recovered in a basal relationship to the five species of subgenus Armigeres in the maximum likelihood phylogeny of Soghigian et al. (2017) based on seven molecular markers.

Bionomics and disease relations: 

The oviposition strategy of species of subgenus Leicesteria was thoroughly discussed by Macdonald (1960). Females attach the eggs in mass to their hindlegs before depositing them on the water. The eggs apparently do not resist drying. Larvae inhabit the internodes of dead and living bamboo in lowland and dipterocarp forests, but are absent from primary forest (Macdonald & Traub, 1960; Macdonald, 1960). Adults occur primarily in forested or plantation areas and are mainly active during daytime and crepuscular periods. Females of a number of species readily attack and viciously bite humans. 

None of the species of subgenus Leicesteria are known to transmit pathogens.


Species of subgenus Leicesteria occur almost exclusively in the Oriental Region. A single Oriental species of the subgenus, Ar. annulipalpis, is recorded from Ceram Island of eastern Indonesia in the Moluccas west of New Guinea in the Australasian Region. 

Principal references: 

Barraud, 1934 (southern Asia); Thurman, 1959 (Thailand); Macdonald, 1960 (revision); Delfinado, 1966 (Philippines); Lee et al., 1988 (Australasian Region); Darsie & Pradhan, 1990 (Nepal); Lu Baolin et al. 1997 (China); Darsie, 2000 (pupae); Reinert et al., 2004, 2009 (phylogeny); Rattanarithikul et al., 2010 (Thailand, keys, bionomics); Soghigian et al., 2017 (phylogenetic relationships).

annulipalpis (Theobald, 1910)
annulitarsis (Leicester, 1908)
balteatus Macdonald, 1960
cingulatus (Leicester, 1908)
dentatus Barraud, 1927
digitatus (Edwards, 1914)
dolichocephalus (Leicester, 1908)
flavus (Leicester, 1908)
inchoatus Barraud, 1927
lepidocoxitus Dong, Zhou & Dong, 1995
longipalpis (Leicester, 1904) (in Theobald, 1904)
magnus (Theobald, 1908)
menglaensis Dong, Zhou & Dong, 2002
omissus (Edwards, 1914)
pectinatus (Edwards, 1914)
pendulus (Edwards, 1914)
traubi Macdonald, 1960
vimoli Thurman & Thurman, 1958 
Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith