What's New?

June 2017

  • (6 Jun) Addition of Ochlerotatus sallumae (González & Reyes, 2017) (in González et al., 2017) [Aedes (Ochlerotatus) sallumae González & Reyes, 2017 in the traditional classification of Aedes], bringing the number of Valid Species to 3,555.

April 2017

  • (25 Apr) Synonymy of Culex (Culiciomyia) spiculothorax Bram, 1967 with Culex (Culiciomyia) sasai Kano, Nitahara & Awaya, 1954 by Phanitchakun et al. (2017), reducing the number of Valid Species to 3,554.

March 2017

February 2017

  • (23 Feb) Recognition of kobayashii Nakata, 1956, synonymised with alektorovi Stackelberg, 1943 by Danilov (1977), as a valid species based on its subsequent treatment as such by Tanaka et al. (1979) and Tanaka (2002)Bruceharrisonius kobayashii (Nakata, 1956) [Aedes (Bruceharrisonius) kobayashii Nakata, 1956 in the traditional classification of Aedes] ‒ bringing the number of Valid Species to 3,554.

January 2017

  • (3 Jan) Based on the study of Kengne et al. (2007), nigeriensis Evans, 1931 is a subspecies of Anopheles moucheti Evans, 1925 rather than a synonym of that species. Thanks to Rick Wilkerson for bringing this to my attention.

IMPORTANT TAXONOMIC CHANGES (other previous items of What's New? removed)

December 2016

  • (2 Dec) A sixth new species described in Peryassú (1908) (see below, 22 Nov) is incorrectly attributed to this author in the world catalogue of mosquitoes (Knight & Stone, 1977). The correct authorship of this species, Psorophora albigenu, as indicated by Peryassú, is Adolpho Lutz. The authorship of this species has been corrected in the Valid Species List and in the applicable taxon pages to Psorophora albigenu (Lutz).

November 2016

  • (22 Nov) The following names, proposed as species of Aedes Meigen, are removed from the Valid Species List and the applicable taxon pages: kolhapuriensis Sathe & Girhe, 2002; panchgangee Sathe & Girhe, 2002; sangitee Sathe & Girhe, 2002; and sangiti Girhe & Sathe, 2001. These are unavailable names (nomina nuda) because they fail to conform to Articles 16.4 and 72.3 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, which for names proposed after 1999 require fixation of a name-bearing type and a statement naming the collection in which it is deposited (International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, 1999). The action reduces the total number of valid species to 3,548.
  • (22 Nov) Five of the new species described in Peryassú (1908) are incorrectly attributed to this author in the world catalogue of mosquitoes (Knight & Stone, 1977). The correct authorship of these species, as indicated by Peryassú, is as follows: Anopheles gilesi (Neiva), An. intermedius (Chagas), An. pseudomaculipes (Chagas), Coquillettidia albicosta (Chagas) and Megarhinus fluminensis Neiva (synonym of Toxorhynchites theobaldi Dyar & Knab). Whereas Edwards (1932) correctly listed Chagas as the author of An. intermedius and An. pseudomaculipes (he apparently overlooked the designated authorship of the other three), Stone et al. (1959) and Knight & Stone (1977) incorrectly listed Peryassú as the author of all five. The authorship of the first four species has been corrected in the Valid Species List and in the applicable taxon pages. Thanks to Richard Wilkerson for noting these errors.

September 2016

December 2015

  • (10 Dec) Misspelling of Catageiomyia lokojoensis (Service, 1959) corrected to Cg. lokojensis [= Aedes (Catageiomyia) lokojensis in the traditional classification of Aedini].

August 2015

  • (26 Aug) This site hosts the phylogenetic classification of tribe Aedini established by Reinert et al. (2009). In view of the aims of the MTI, this is the preferred classification. However, the site now also displays the modified “traditional classification” of the tribe recently proffered by Wilkerson et al. (2015). The phylogenetic classification remains the primary classification and the latter is provided as an alternative classification. Click here or navigate to “Aedini traditional classification” under “Classifications” on the MTI main menu for comments on the classification of Wilkerson et al. and reasons why it is included herein, with corrections to errors in their listings of formal and particularly informal taxonomic groups.

October 2014

  • (27 Oct) Aedimorphus syntheticus (Barraud, 1928), originally introduced as Aedes (Aedimorphus) syntheticus, is no longer a valid replacement name for Aedes (Aedimorphus) fisheri Barraud, 1928, non Dyar, 1917, which was described originally as Aedes fisheri. The specific name of fisheri Dyar is now recognised as a junior synonym of Ochlerotatus ventrovittis (Dyar, 1916). Because fisheri Barraud and fisheri Dyar now reside in different genera, Aedimorphus and Ochlerotatus respectively, syntheticus Barraud is no longer justified as a replacement name for the former. Consequently, Aedimorphus syntheticus (Barraud) has been replaced by Aedimorphus fisheri (Barraud) in the list of Valid Species.
  • (19 Oct) Aedimorphus stenoscutus (Edwards, 1912), originally proposed as a variety of Ochlerotatus minutus, = Catageiomyia minuta (Theobald, 1901), is a junior synonym of Aedimorphus africanus (Theobald, 1909), originally named Stenoscutus africanus. As explained by White (1975), Edwards (1912) transferred africanus Theobald from Stenoscutus to Ochlerotatus, which, at that time, became a junior secondary homonym of Oc. africanus (Newstead, 1907, in Newstead et al., 1907) [originally named Duttonia africana]. For this reason, Edwards proposed stenoscutus as a replacement name for africanus Theobald.
         Stone et al. (1959) listed africanus Theobald and stenoscutus Edwards as junior synonyms of Aedes (Aedimorphus) neobiannulatus (Theobald, 1910), originally named Reedomyia neobiannulata. However, because Stone et al. had overlooked the synonymy of neobiannulatus with tarsalis Newstead, 1907 by Edwards (1941), White (1975) designated the holotype of Reedomyia biannulata Theobald, 1907, objective synonym of neobiannulata and an established synonym of tarsalis Newstead, as the lectotype for Reedomyia neobiannulata Theobald, 1910, thus fixing both nominal species as synonyms of tarsalis Newstead.
         As a result of phylogenetic study, Reinert et al. (2009) resurrected Catageiomyia Theobald, 1903, from synonymy with Aedimorphus Theobald, 1903, to include tarsalis Newstead and 27 other species. As tarsalis Newstead is now a species of Catageiomyia, africanus Theobald (genus Aedimorphus) is no longer a junior secondary homonym of africana Newstead (genus Catageiomyia) and no longer requires a replacement name. Consequently, africanus (Theobald, 1909b), = africanus Theobald, 1910 listed by White, 1975, is a valid species of Aedimorphus and stenoscutus (Edwards, 1912) is its junior synonym. Because stenoscutus Edwards does not meet the conditions of prevailing usage (Article 23.9.01 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, 1999), africanus Theobald, in the combination Aedimorphus africanus (Theobald, 1909), replaces Aedimorphus stenoscutus (Edwards, 1912) in the list of Valid Species.

March 2014:

  • (9 Mar) Hulecoeteomyia fluviatilis Leicester, 1908 is here recognised as the senior synonym of Hulecoeteomyia saxicola (Edwards, 1922), originally Aedes saxicola. Edwards introduced the name saxicola as a replacement for fluviatilis Leicester, 1908, non Lutz, 1904 (in Bourroul, 1904), which was described originally as Culex fluviatilis. Both fluviatilis Lutz and saxicola Edwards were recognised as species of Aedes (subgenera Ochlerotatus and Finlaya respectively) until Ochlerotatus was restored to generic rank, with Finlaya as a subgenus, by Reinert (2000). The species were removed from Ochlerotatus by Reinert et al. (2006) and placed in separate genera, with saxicola Edwards in Hulecoeteomyia and fluviatilis Lutz in Georgecraigius (Horsfallius). As fluviatilis Leicester and fluviatilis Lutz are no longer regarded as congeneric, saxicola Edwards is no longer justified as a replacement name for the latter. Consequently, Hulecoeteomyia saxicola (Edwards) has been replaced by Hulecoeteomyia fluviatilis Leicester in the list Valid Species.

August 2013:

  • (24 Aug) Synonymy of Anopheles paraliae Sandosham with Anopheles lesteri Baisas & Hu, 1936 based on genetic compatibility of cross-matings and low genetic distances of ITS2 (rDNA), COI and COII (mtDNA) sequences between the two nominal forms (Taai et al., 2013). Although Taai et al. intended to conduct further studies before “definitely concluding” that these forms were synonymous, the following statement unambiguously verifies the synonymy: “Our studies using crossing experiments between An. lesteri from Korea and An. paraliae from Thailand together with data on species distributions, morphological variants, cytology and comparative DNA sequence analyses have clearly indicated that they are conspecific within the taxon An. lesteri”. Hence, Anopheles paraliae is removed from the list of Valid Species, reducing the number of currently recognised mosquito species to 3,529.

July 2013:

  • (21 Jul) Mucidus (Pardomyia) nigrescens (Edwards, 1929) (in Paine & Edwards, 1929), originally described as Pardomyia aurantia variety nigrescens, is here recognised as the senior synonym of Mucidus (Pardomyia) painei (Knight, 1948), originally Aedes (Mucidus) aurantius painei. The name painei was introduced as a replacement for nigrescens Edwards, 1929, non Theobald, 1907, which was described originally as Aedes nigrescens. However, nigrescens Theobald, 1907 is a synonym of Culex (Eumelanomyia) malayi (Leicester, 1908) based on the recognition of the single male of the type series as the holotype of nigrescens by Sirivanakarn (1972) [note that Townson (1990) incorrectly attributed the lectotype designation of Culex (Eumelanomyia) castrensis Edwards, 1922 by Sirivanakarn (1972) to nigrescens Theobald, 1907]. Consequently, nigrescens Edwards, 1929 is not a homonym of nigrescens Theobald, 1907 and is not a justified replacement name for the latter; hence, Mucidus (Pardomyia) painei (Knight, 1948) has been replaced by Mucidus (Pardomyia) nigrescens (Edwards, 1929) in the list of Valid Species.
  • (19 Jul) Name changes in genus Verrallina as follow:
           Verrallina (Neomacleaya) ceylonica (Edwards, 1917), originally described as Aedes ceylonicus, is here recognised as the senior synonym of Verrallina (Neomacleaya) lankaensis (Stone & Knight, 1958), originally described as Aedes (Aedes) lankaensis and treated as a species of Aedes (Verrallina) by Reinert (1974) before Verrallina was restored to generic rank by Reinert (1999), with lankaensis (Stone & Knight) placed in subgenus Neomacleaya. Stone & Knight proposed lankaensis as a replacement name for ceylonicus Edwards, 1917, non ceylonica Theobald (1910), which was originally described as a variety of Culex (?) japonicus Theobald, 1901 and later synonymised with Aedes (Finlaya) chrysolineatus (Theobald, 1907) (Edwards, 1932; Knight, 1948). When Reinert et al. (2006) transferred chrysolineatus to genus Hulecoeteomyia Theobald, the synonymous ceylonica Theobald was automatically removed from Aedes and placed in Hulecoeteomyia. Because ceylonica Edwards and ceylonica Theobald are now placed in separate genera, Verrallina and Hulecoeteomyia respectively, lankaensis Stone & Knight is no longer justified as a replacement name for the former. Consequently, Verrallina lankaensis (Stone & Knight) has been replaced by Verrallina ceylonica (Edwards) in the list of Valid Species.
           Verrallina (Neomacleaya) taeniata (Leicester, 1908), originally described as Aioretomyia taeniata, is here recognised as the senior synonym of Verrallina (Neomacleaya) incertus (Edwards, 1922, 1922), originally described as Aedes (Aedes) incertus, treated as a species of Aedes (Neomacleaya) by Delfinado (1967) and a species of Aedes (Verrallina) by Reinert (1974) before Verrallina was restored to generic rank by Reinert (1999), with incerta (Edwards) placed in subgenus Neomacleaya. Edwards proposed incertus as a replacement name for taeniata Leicester, non Wiedemann, 1828, which was originally described as Culex taeniatus. The species described by Wiedemann has been recognised as a junior synonym of Culex aegypti Linnaeus, 1762 since Theobald (1905) listed it as a synonym of Stegomyia fasciata (Fabricius, 1805), which was originally described as Culex fasciatus. Culex fasciatus Fabricius and Culex taeniatus Wiedemann became synonyms of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) with the transfer of Stegomyia Theobald to subgeneric status in Aedes Meigen by Edwards (1917, 1932), and they became synonyms of Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus) when Stegomyia was restored to generic status by Reinert et al. (2004). As taeniata Leicester and taeniatus Wiedemann are no longer regarded as congeneric, incertus Edwards is no longer justified as a replacement name for the latter. Consequently, Verrallina incerta (Edwards) has been replaced by Verrallina taeniata (Leicester) in the list of Valid Species.
           Verrallina (Verrallina) bancrofti (Taylor, 1914), originally described as Skusea bancrofti, is here recognised as the senior synonym of Verrallina (Verrallina) cunninghami (Taylor, 1944), originally described as Aedes (Aedes) cunninghami and treated as a species of Aedes (Verrallina) by Reinert (1974) before Verrallina was restored to generic rank by Reinert (1999), with cunninghami (Taylor) placed in subgenus Verrallina. Taylor (1944) proposed cunninghami as a replacement name for bancrofti Taylor, 1914, non bancrofti Skuse (1889), which was originally described as Culex bancrofti. The species described by Skuse has been recognised as a junior synonym of Culex aegypti Linnaeus, 1762 since Theobald (1905) listed it as a synonym of Stegomyia fasciata (Fabricius, 1805), which was originally described as Culex fasciatus. Culex fasciatus Fabricius and Culex bancrofti Skuse became synonyms of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) with the transfer of Stegomyia Theobald to subgeneric status in Aedes Meigen by Edwards (1917, 1932), and they became synonyms of Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus) when Stegomyia was restored to generic status by Reinert et al. (2004). As bancrofti Skuse and bancrofti Taylor are no longer regarded as congeneric, cunninghami Taylor is no longer justified as a replacement name for the latter. Consequently, Verrallina cunninghami (Taylor) has been replaced by Verrallina bancrofti (Taylor) in the list of Valid Species.
  • (15 Jul) Aedimorphus taeniatus (Leicester, 1908), originally described as Lepidotomyia taeniata, is here recognised as the senior synonym of Aedimorphus orbitae (Edwards, 1922), originally described as Aedes orbitae and treated as a species of Aedes (Aedimorphus), since Edwards & Given (1928), until Aedimorphus Theobald was restored to generic status by Reinert et al. (2004). The name orbitae was introduced as a replacement for taeniata Leicester, non Wiedemann, 1828, which was originally described as Culex taeniatus. The species described by Wiedemann has been recognised as a junior synonym of Culex aegypti Linnaeus, 1762 since Theobald (1905) listed it as a synonym of Stegomyia fasciata (Fabricius, 1805), which was originally described as Culex fasciatus. Culex fasciatus Fabricius and Culex taeniatus Wiedemann became synonyms of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) with the transfer of Stegomyia Theobald to subgeneric status in Aedes Meigen by Edwards (1917, 1932), and they became synonyms of Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus) when Stegomyia was restored to generic status by Reinert et al. (2004). As taeniatus Wiedemann and taeniata Leicester are no longer regarded as congeneric, orbitae Edwards is no longer justified as a replacement name for the latter. Consequently, Aedimorphus orbitae (Edwards) has been replaced by Aedimorphus taeniatus (Leicester) in the list of Valid Species.

June 2013:

  • (23 Jun) Diceromyia nivea (de Meillon, 1943), originally described as Aedes (Diceromyia) niveus, is here recognised as the senior synonym of Diceromyia zethus (de Meillon & Lavoipierre, 1944). The name zethus was introduced as a replacement for niveus de Meillon., non Ludlow, 1903 (in Theobald, 1903), which was originally described as Stegomyia nivea and recognised as a species of Aedes (Finlaya) by Brug (1931) and later workers until it was transferred to genus Downsiomyia by Reinert et al. (2004). As niveus Ludlow and niveus de Meillon are no longer regarded as congeneric, zethus de Meillon & Lavoipierre is no longer justified as a replacement name for the latter. Consequently, Diceromyia zethus (de Meillon & Lavoipierre) has been replaced by Diceromyia nivea (de Meillon) in the list of Valid Species.

March 2013:

  • (9 Mar) Taxonomic note: Hodgesia cyptopus Theobald, 1909. White (1980) regarded the spelling of the name of this species as an unjustified emendation of the original spelling of cuptopous by Theobald. However, the original spelling is a combination of Latin and Greek forms: cypto- from the Greek kytpo- (meaning bent or curved) and pous from Greek (meaning foot). Logically, Theobald should have spelled the name as kyptopous, which when Latinized would be cyptopus (pus the Latin of the Greek pous). Because Theobald misspelled the first part of the name as cupto-, Edwards (1912) apparently corrected this to the Latin cypto- and changed the Greek pous to the Latin pus in agreement. Consequently, cyptopus is not an unjustified emendation of cuptopous.

June 2012:

  • (27 Jun) Anopheles krishnai: A nomen nudum. Sathe & Jagtap (2012) described a purported new species of the Anopheles maculatus group of the Neocellia Series, which they named Anopheles krishnai. Unfortunately, the paper does not provide credible evidence to support the recognition of a new species. The authors overlooked the extensive morphological and molecular work that has been done on the Neocellia Series in southern and southeastern Asia. Instead of contrasting the purported new species with members of this group, the authors conducted a molecular phylogenetic comparison with distantly related species of subgenera Nyssorhynchus in the Neotropical Region and Cellia in the Afrotropical Region (also one species, An. stephensi, from southern Asia). Needless to say, the comparison does not support the recognition of a new species within the Neocellia Series. Furthermore, in view of the current state of anopheline taxonomy, the immature stages as well as both sexes of the adults should have been described and contrasted with closely related species (in concert with molecular data) to ensure the validity of a new species. Not only have the authors failed to do this, they have not adequately fulfilled the criteria of availability for species names established by the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature: (1) They provide a brief description and indicate that the species runs to An. maculatus in the key of Rao (1984) but there is no diagnosis or statement of morphological characters that differentiates the purported new species from related or similar taxa (Article 13.1). (2) They designate a holotype, but fail to state the name and location of the collection where it is or will be deposited (Article 16.4). For these reasons, the validity of the species is highly doubtful, and the name krishnai is hereby regarded as a nomen nudum. 
Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith